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Chapter 7.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Chapter 7: Memory 1. Encoding  input into our brains; involves forming a memory code  Attention/processing o You must pay attention in order to get it into your brain o We must selectively attend to important information o Types of processing:   Structural Encoding (1)  very shallow, visual and physical stimuli processing (angles, shading)  Phonemic Encoding (2)  intermediate, sounds and objects  With High cognitive loads, early filtering of the above are being filtered out.  Semantic encoding (3)  at a deep level, the deepest type of coding that can be made, what the words mean  With low cognitive loads, late filtering of the above occurs  If you do not filter soon, you are using divided attention. When we use divided attention we are not processing the information  How to enhance encoding (Every Student Owns a Visa) o Elaboration (linking the stimulus to other information)  Multiple examples  Mnemonics  Makes the information distinct and therefore more retrievable o Visual Imagery  Allows dual coding of words and pictures. The more ways you can encode something, the easier it is to remember it o Self-Referent Encoding  Make information personally relevant o Organization  When you organize a lot of information into smaller/logical chunks, it is easier to remember  Also allows for dual coding if you use charts, stories, etc. 2. Storage  keeping it in our brains through sensory, short term, long term memory  Sensory Memory o A holding bin o We decide what to keep and what’s extraneous  Large capacity  Auditory, visual, physical etc. o Can only keep things here for a quarter of a second  Short term memory o We can keep things in via rehearsal o Has a very limited capacity o We can make larger bits of information more manageable via chunking o Working with short term memory  Phonological rehearsal loop  rehearsing what you hear  Visuospatial sketchpad  example: can visualize a map that has long been stored in long term memory  Executive control system  switching attention from your visual map in your head to the task of driving  Episodic Buffer  taking all of this information from LTM, putting it into short term memory to use it, then placing it back to LTM  Long term memory  the way to get things stored in this section is through deep encoding o Types of memories:  Declarative memories  facts, things that are explicit information that we have learned  Semantic memories = general knowledge; example, who the prime minister is  Episodic memories = personally experienced  Prospective: the memories of the things that you must remember to do in the future  Retrospective: the things that you have already personally experienced, past events  Procedural  the how to kinds of things that are kept in the brain, such as “riding a bike” or “driving a car”  Permanency of long term memory (not) o Flashbulb memories  they are of particular events that are so traumatic or so happy to us that they are extremely vivid  research suggests that even flashbulb memories lose the consistency of their contents o Inaccuracy of memories  Increased accuracy occurs  Deep processing  How well it was encoded  meaning that after all the semantics processes have occurred, were you successful. If you encoded well, those memories will last longer. (A’s have longer memories then C’s).  Gradual encoding with repetition will give you better accuracy of your memories then if you pull an all nighter  Organization of LTM
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