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Chapter 10.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Chapter 10 - Motivation Motivation  a goal directed behaviour  Drive theories  we are motivated to act because of an internal drive o Hunger  Internal/biological drive  A relationship between glucose and the stomach  Hormones  leptin, communicates with the hypothalamus; seratonin  External factors  Food availability (advertising works)  Presence of others  Culture  Stress  Evolutionary theories  we are motivated to act by reproductive success o We will do anything to enhance the likelihood of getting our genes to exist beyond us  Incentive theories  we are motivated to act by external goals o These also influence out drive for hunger and sex Issues regarding weight 1. Obesity  Genes  oversimplification o Heritability estimates to be quite high that range between 61-73% o There may be a genetic vulnerability that can be overcome  Eating/exercise o Larger portions of food o Cheaper/processed food  high sugar o Fast food o Industrial society  Settling point theory (flexible homeostatis) o Our bodies have a preferred weight threshold o Changes can be made with long term healthy regiments  Dieting o Cognitive issues  “Restrained eaters”  those who try to eat in moderation but are constantly obsessing over food  control themselves until a disruption causes them to disinhibition o Metabolic issues  Restricting your calories stops your metabolism  Whatever food you do put in does not get burned in order to conserve the energy that is has  A lack of food tells the body to shut down  A decresed metabolism = weight gain 2. Eating Disorders  anorexia nervosa (excessive exercising, restrained eating), bulimia nervosa (eating and binging), normative discontent  Around age nine, women begin to experience and feel normative discontent  Personality o Rigid, perfectionist types are predicted of those who are going to suffer from anorexia o Impulsive people are those who are more likely to suffer from bulimia  Family o Control over food is a way to gain control from overbearing parents  Culture o Varying cultural attitudes towards weight  Ex. In agrarian cultures, fat = wealth and is therefore valued o Historical changes in preferred body type  Ex. Hourglass of 1950’s  Ex. Male muscles were not valued as they were s symbol of the working class and the poor in the 1920’s-1930’s o Gender differences in preferences Issues regarding sex 1. Causes of sexual desire  sexual desire is not the same thing as sexual behaviour  Hormones o Testosterone increases sexual desire in both women and men o Hormones do not cause sexual behaviour  Personality (erotophobia – erotophilia) o A learned personality trait o Phobics show decreased desire (tend to not wear condoms during sex because they are uncomfortable talking about getting it on) and philics show increased desire  Erotica vs pornography o Erotica = sexually arousing material  Increased desire for a short time after viewing o Pronography = sexual degredation/violence  Desensitizes us to violence  Increases rape myth acceptance  Increase aggression (as electric shock) 2. Gender Differences? (in desire)  general opinion is that men want it and think about it more  Parental investment/promiscuity o Reproductive success (according to evolutionary psychology)  In order for men to be successful reproductively speaking, they must be promiscuous  They are saying that they are not invested as fathers, they do not have to do much other then have sex with as many women as possible  This why a man must objectify a woman and force it upon her in order to ensure the longevity and successfulness of genes  In order for women to be successful reproductively speaking, they must be very specific/picky about who fertilizes them in order to ensure that they are reproductively successful  their parental investment is higher o Evolutionary psychology cannot actually be tested in the laboratory, we can only surmise about whether or not things happened in this manner  Culture/sexual scripts (normal behaviours prescribed by society) o The messages that men and women are given in society is not a huge paradox as previously believed o We could argue that the differences in sexual desire could be due to different sexual scripts: o Men: The man is there to get the sexual object (ie. Women), they are the ones to perform the objectifying  men get a message to glorify the sexual experience, their sexuality is glorified o Women: Be a sexual object  be silent and be submissive = silences women’s needs in favor of men’s needs o Langauge is one of the biggest ways we learn about these scripts  Male promiscuity has positive terms associated with it: stud  Male anatomy words are ok and publically accepted  Female anatomy words are infantilized
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