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Chapter 11.docx

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Mindi Foster

Chapter 11: Development Across the Lifespan Prenatal Stages:  Germinal  first two weeks o Rapid cell division o Zygote implantation of the uterine wall o The uterine wall can reject the zygote, which terminates pregnancy o At this stage the outer portion of the zygote becomes the placenta  Embryonic two weeks to two months o The vital organs begin to develop o Shell of a human  Fetal  two months to birth o Muscles and bones begin to develop Environment and Development  Nutrition o Malnutrition can result in:  Psychiatric disorders  Low birth weight  Heart disease  Diabetes  Drugs o Babies are able to be born with addictions if the mother uses while pregnant o Cocaine/pot can lead to physical and cognitive difficulties o Alcohol leads to fetal alcohol syndrome o Alcohol and cocaine can attach to sperm and damage it  Illness o Fifth’s Disease, Rubella, measles, the flu, herpes (herpes could lead to deafness and blindness, brain damage, a smaller head size), AIDS Childhood Motor development  look at the necessary reflexes, whether or not they are suckling, swallowing, grasping, rooting (touching the cheek to get it to suckle)  (1) Cephalocaudal movement  we gain control of the upper body before lower body  (2) Proximodistal movement  gain control of the torso before we gain control or arms and legs (extremities)  Norms o Median ages at which kids show certain abilities o “Milestones”  example rolling over at 3 months, walking at a year, sitting up at 5 months  Cultural variation o In agrarian cultures, children learn to walk faster o Because we are told to lay our babies on their backs, crawling becomes less of a milestone o Cultures and even within cultures can change the milestones Temperments  Inhibited vs Uninhibited o Inhibited  Shy  Slow to warm to strangers = anxious adolescent o Uninhibited  Ok with strangers  Attachment o Physical and emotional attachment  can both parents meet needs o Father attachment  important for cognitive development, emotional regulation, academic achievement, decreased delinquency o Anxious-ambivalent attachment  Upset when parent leaves and not comforted when they come back  This person would be a worried, needy, jealous romantic partner o Avoiding attachment  Don’t care when parent comes or goes  Shuts down emotionally  Commitment phobic  Attachment and Daycare o Full time daycare (30 hours a week) vs. 0 hors o Followed over 15 months  no difference between the two  Cognitive development  Language development  Child engagement  Attachment Erikson’s personality development  personality is shaped by resolving psycho-social crises  Trust vs Mistrust  struggle between 2 opposing tendencies o When/how the infant’s needs are met determines if the infant feels the world is a good place or not  Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt  occurs in the 2’s o Autonomy = independence/self-awareness o If handled with patience and encouragement  Initiative vs guilt (3 to 6 years old) o If a parent supports the initiative, then the child begins to become more independent o If the parent reacts with criticism then the child feels silly for trying  Industry vs inferiority (6 years till puberty) o Outside individuals such as teachers and care givers must be supportive of the child’s successes and failures Piaget’s cognitive development  Thinking o Assimilation  Put new information into old structures without changing them o Accommodation  Changing the schema to adapt to new information  Stages o Sensorimotor (0-2)  Object permanence  Beginning of capacity to use  Sensory input  Motor actions o Preoperational (2-7)  Accelerated use of symbols and language  No conservation, irreversibility,  Egocentrism o Concrete operations (7-12)  Understanding conservation  Understanding identity  Understanding serial ordering o Formal operations (12 –x)  Abstract reasoning  Ability t compare and classify ideas  Hypothetical thinking  Criticisms of Piaget o Underestimation of infants  Object permanence  As early as 3 or 4 months  There is a nonegocentric response in babies: crying when hearing other babies cry; preschoolers ability to adopt language to younger children  Piaget says that attention to a norvel event and doesn’t make sense  Reasearchers support habituation  it is an old, familiar, understood event  Math  Babies attend to impossible events  Ex, pencil suspended in air is attended to vs habituated  Attend to impossible math events  Therefore, they understood these are not correct  Overlapping vs. distinct stages  Stages are overlapping not distinct o Alternative perspectives  M- capacity  How much we can hold in our minds at one time  As cognitive development increases, so does our capacity  Quantity vs Quality (piaget )
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