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Lecture 3

PS102 - Lecture 3.docx

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Eileen Wood

PS102 Lecture 3 Memory: A Primer What is Memory? • Cornerstone of cognition • Required for most higher-order functions - Language - Problem solving - Reading Caveat • We will highlight - Limitations - Reservations - Vulnerability of memory • Don’t be discouraged • Tremendous system, powerful, despite idiosyncrasies A Model of Memory • Three Processes - Encoding - Storage - Retrieval Encoding, Storage, Retrieval • Encoding - Acquiring information - Detect the information (the code) prepare it to be placed in memory - Code can be sound patter, letter sequences, image, tactile cue, smell etc. - Translated into a neural code Storage • Encoded information has to be retained • Has to be a memory trace Retrieval • Accessing memories • Try to remember what was stored • Recall – no cues • Recognition – cues Recall versus Recognition • Recall - What is the operant term used to denote when something is added to the environment that increases the probability that a behaviour will reoccur: • Recognition - Positive reinforcement involves adding something to the environment that increases the probability that a behaviour will reoccur Memory Model Executive: Environment  Sensory Register  Short Term Memory  Long Term Memory (STM) (LTM) Working Memory Lost Forgetting Sensory Register Memory • Holds raw sensory input - Iconic stores - Visual information - Last fractions for a second (1/4 of a second) • Echoic Stress - Auditory information - Lasts about 2 seconds - Partial trace can last longer - Ex. Remembering when taking notes you are able to hear voice after they have stopped talking • Volatile - When someone points it out to you process without wanting to Memory System: Storage Unit Short Term Memory: Function Purpose & Function • Conscious awareness • Integrate information • Temp working area • Hold current plans-strategies - Not unconscious, you make the information smalle
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