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PS102 - Lecture 1&2.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Introduction to Psychology II Lecture One Learning - Process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour or capabilities (knowing how) 2 perspectives for understanding how learning occurs: • Behaviourism - Focused on how organisms learn - Examined processes by which experience influences behaviour - Discovered laws of learning that apply virtually all organisms - Treated organism as tabula rasa (blank slate) no other things have been learned before, we start blank - Explained learning solely in terms of directly observable events - Avoided unobservable “mental states”  Respondent Conditioning (Classical/Pavolian Conditioning) • Based on internal responses to naturally occurring stimuli (sucking on a lemon and natural response is to get saliva or when in heat, muscles naturally relax) • Some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us • When we pair things that don’t have a value, or have a different value with these naturally occurring pairings, the “value free” or “differently valued” item will come to take on the new meaning • Can take things that didn’t startle you before & make them startle you with training (velvet drapes) Four Important Terms • UCS = unconditioned stimulus - Stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response without prior learning (lemon) • UCR = unconditioned response - Reflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning (sucker face after lemon) • CS = conditioned stimulus - Stimulus that through association with the UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR (ex. training you with a sound to do something) • CR = conditioned response - Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus UCS ▯ UCR • Sugar produces smile, lip licking for babies • Sugar ▯ smile, lip licking • Lemon ▯ “pucker” Looking at Bridges – Wobbly Bridges – Feeling Nauseous Types of CS-UCS pairings • Forward short-delay - CS (tone) still present when food (UCS) presented - Optimal learning • Forward trace - CS appears & then goes off - Best if delay if no more than 2-3 seconds • Simultaneous - Presented at same time - Slower learning • Backward - Presented afterward - Little learning Operant conditioning aka Skinnerian or instrumental conditioning ethology Lecture Two Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery • Extinction - Process in which CS is presented in absence of UCS - Causes CR to weaken and eventually disappear • Spontaneous Recovery - Could be a good or bad thing - After a rest period, and without any new learning trails, the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR - Usually weaker than initial CR, extinguishes more rapidly Generalization and Discrimination • Generalization - Stimuli similar to initial CS elicit a CR - Aids in survival • Discrimination - CR occurs to one stimulus but not to another - Ex. a fire alarm vs. someone’s watch High Order Conditioning • Chain of events which has 2 CS stimuli • Expands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour Variables Affecting Respondent Conditioning • Response Dominance - Refers to the relative strengths of responses elicited by the CS and UCS before they are paired - Best results when UCS is stronger Extinction • Gradual - Systematic dieselization: based on a hierarchy what makes you least and most fearful • Non Gradual - Flooding - Real events - Implosion - Imagine events Classical/Respondent/Pavlovian Conditioning Influences Many Things • Attraction • Positive, negative attitudes - Both of above used in advertising • Conditioned aversions - Dislike a certain food/drink because you became sick? • Anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) - Common among cancer patients Operant Conditioning • Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning • Classical - Behaviour changes due to association of two stimuli (CS-UCS) presented prior to the response (CR) • Operant - Behaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow it Operant Conditioning • Learning through consequences • Thorndike’s Law of Effect - Response followed by a “satisfying” consequence becomes more likely to occur - Response followed by an “unsatisfying” consequence becomes less likely to occur • Skinnerian, Instrumental - Assumes that behaviours are voluntary, under our control - We have to emit a behaviour “operate” on the environment and then associate this behaviour with a positive or negative outcome • Reinforces increase the likelihood of a behaviour (+) • Punishers suppress behaviour (-) Positive Reinforcers • Primary Reinforces - Stimuli that are reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs (Ex. food, drink) • Secondary Reinforcers - Acquire reinforcing properties through association with primary reinforces (Ex. money, praise) Reinforcers and Punishers Reinforcement Punishment Positive -Increase behaviour -Decrease behaviour -Add to environment -Add to environment -Candy/Smile/A+ -Slap, shout Negative -Increase behavour -Decrease behaviour -Remove from environment -Remove environment -Buzzer, pain -Time out, no TV Developmental Implications • Individuals has to be able to naturally produce a behaviour OR • Shaping - Reinforce approximation toward a final response • Positive reinforcement best format Chaining • Reinforce each response with opportunity to perform the next response • Develops a sequence of behaviours What Variables impact on effectiveness? • Interval/Timing • Frequency/Scheduling Interval/ Timing • Fixing – something like every Wednesday when gym class occurs (action is relevant), good for training • Variable – set time or random, they do not know when it becoming available, good for maintenance, time consuming and hard work Frequency or Scheduling • Continuous Reinforcement - Every response of a particular type is reinforced • Partial Reinforcement - Only some responses are reinforced Partial Reinforcement Schedules • Ratio - Certain percentage of responses are reinforced • Interval - Certain amount of time must elapse between reinforcements • Fixed - Reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses or fixed time interval • Variable - Reinforcement occurs after an average number of responses or passage of time Continuous-Partial Reinforcement Differences • Continuous Reinforcement - More rapid learning - Consequences easier to perceive - Extinction more rapid • Partial Reinforcement - Slower learning - More resistant or extinction – especially on VR schedule, more cheaper Real Life Example: Gambling • Gambling is reinforced on a VR schedule • Do not know which response will be reinforced! Could always be the next one! • Difficult to extinguish Applications of Operant Conditioning • SpecializedAnimal Training - Animals assist people who have disabilities - Animals assist police, military - Animals perform in entertainment industry • Education & Workplace - Teaching machines (Skinner) and computer-assisted instruction - Immediate feedback - Self-paced learning Applications Continued • Token economies - Desired behaviour reinforced with token, exchangeable for rewards Factor 1: Classical conditioning of fear CS SNAKE + = CR Conditioned fear response to snakes UCS Traumatic car accident Factor 2: Operant conditioning of avoidance Avoidance of snakes is negatively reined Avoid Snakes ▯ Fear is reduced ▯ Tendency to avoid snakes is strengthened Social Learning • Bandura • Bobo dolls (blow up dolls) • Learning through observation Examples • PromotingArousal (Classical) • Promoting Romantic Behaviours (Operant) • These are different behaviours – the first is the best handled through association, the second through operant conditioning Romance • Promoting romantic behaviours – reward successes, or shape • Define the behaviours you consider to be romantic PS102 Lecture 3 Memory:A Primer What is Memory? • Cornerstone of cognition • Required for most higher-order functions - Language - Problem solving - Reading Caveat • We will highlight - Limitations - Reservations - Vulnerability of memory • Don’t be discouraged • Tremendous system, powerful, despite idiosyncrasies AModel of Memory • Three Processes - Encoding - Storage - Retrieval Encoding, Storage, Retrieval • Encoding - Acquiring information - Detect the information (the code) prepare it to be placed in memory - Code can be sound patter, letter sequences, image, tactile cue, smell etc. - Translated into a neural code Storage • Encoded information has to be retained • Has to be a memory trace Retrieval • Accessing memories • Try to remember what was stored • Recall – no cues • Recognition – cues Recall versus Recognition • Recall - What is the operant term used to denote when something is added to the environment that increases the probability that a behaviour will reoccur: • Recognition - Positive reinforcement involves adding something to the environment that increases the probability that a behaviour will reoccur Memory Model Executive: Environment ▯ Sensory Register ▯ Short Term Memory ▯ Long Term Memory (STM) (LTM) Working Memory Lost Forgetting Sensory Register Memory • Holds raw sensory input - Iconic stores - Visual information - Last fractions for a second (1/4 of a second) • Echoic Stress - Auditory information - Lasts about 2 seconds - Partial trace can last longer - Ex. Remembering when taking notes you are able to hear voice after they have stopped talking • Volatile - When someone points it out to you process wi
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