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Kathy Foxall

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Chapter 6- Week 2 Lecture • Reinforcement strengthens or increases behaviour • Punishment reduces behaviour • Negative reinforcement is not punishment o Escape learning o Avoidance learning o **questions on test about reinforcement (negative and positive) • Classical conditioning can start fear, but can be carried on through operant conditioning by avoiding the conditioned response • Extinction: o Weakening of learned response o When action is no longer followed by a reinforcer • Spontaneous Recovery o Behaviour may emerge again • Schedules of Reinforcement o Continuous schedule • Response is always reinforced o Intermittent (partial) schedule • Schedule which response is reinforces after a number or responses • Can be fixed or variable • Can be interval or ratio Shaping • Skinner: "No such thing as free will" • B.F.Skinner • Mould desired behaviour by rewarding behaviours that are successive approximations • Successive Approximations: behaviours that are ordered in terms of increasing similarly or closeness to the desires response Variations on Refinforcement • Delayed reinforcement o Longer delay, slower conditioning • Primary Reinforcers o Satisfy biological needs • Secondary Reinforcers o Conditioned reinforcers (associated with primary reinforcers) • Table 6.1 Limits on Learning • Limited by genetic dispositions and physical characteristics • Instinctive drift o During operant learning, tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behaviour Operant Conditioning in Real Life • Behaviour modification o The application of operant conditioning techniques to o One form of behaviour modification is called intensive behavioural intervention which was developed for autistic children Punishment Punishment: lowers probability of response Unpleasant Stimulus (Positive p
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