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Kathy Foxall

Chapter 8- Language and Thought – Week4 • The Cognitive Recolution o 19th century focus on the mind • Introspection o Behaviourist focus on overt responses • Arguments regarding incomplete picture of human functioning o Empirical study of cognition-1956 conference • Simon and Newell- computer that simulated human problem solving • Chomsky -new model of language • Miller-memory • Language: Turning Thoughts into Words o Properties of Language • Hierarchal structure of language o Phonemes=smallest speech units • 100 possible-English=40 o Morphemes=smallest unit of meaning • 50 000 in English, root words, prefixes, suffixes o Semantics=meaning of worlds and word combos o Syntax=system of rules for arranging words into sentences • Fig. 8.1 • Language development :milestones o Initial focalization similar across languages • Crying, cooing, babbling o 6months- babbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding language o 1year -first word • Similar cross-culturally-words for parents • Receptive vs. Expressive language o 18-24 months-vocabulary spurt • Fast mapping • Over and underextensions o End of second year-combine words • Telegraphic speech • Mean length of utterance o End of third year-complex ideas, plural, past tense • Overregulation • Bilingualism o Smaller vocabularies in one language, combined vocabularies is average o Higher scores for middle-class bilingual subjects on cognitive flexibility, analytical reasoning, selective attention and meta linguistic awareness o Slight disadvantage in terms of language processing speed o Second languages more easily acquired early in life o Greater acculturation facilitates acquisition o Develop executive control earlier and can juggle tasks more efficiently • Can animals develop a Language o Dolphins, sea lions, parrots, chimpanzees • Vocal apparatus
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