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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

Biology Midterm II NotesEvolution and Human HealthWhy are organisms vulnerable to diseasesHow infectious agents evolveHow common ancestry helps scientists use the results from animal models to understand issues related to human healthSome symptoms are adaptiveSelection acts on traits increasing reproduction not on wellbeingSymptoms of certain diseases are something we evolve to doing to cope with itex Morning sickness of women maybe an adaption to prevent toxication during early stages of pregnancyWe may be adapted to conditions different than the ones we are living inHomo sapiens200 000 years agoSwitch from huntinggathering to agriculture 5000 to 10000 years agoThe pace of cultural evolution is faster that the pace of biological evolution of certain traitsMismatch between our current environment and the environment we evolved inSome parasites may have caused out immune system to evolve tolerance toward them old friendsParasitic infections are greatly reduced in industrialized countriesThe rise in asthma allergies and autoimmune diseases may be the result of low level of parasitism by old friendsInfection with parasites have been used to treat certain auto immune diseases and allergies helminthic therapyEx Myopiais a partlyheritable trait something found in genes youre stuckwithWhy was myopia noteliminated by selectionFrequency of myopia as a function os age among Inuits from Alaska study conducted in the 60sThe Alleles causing myopia may not have caused myopia in hunter gathers populationsyoungerage group 635 were born and raised in an This study was Americanized lifestyle with important schooling a conducted in trigger from myopiathis day and ageolder group 3688 were born and raised in a more traditional lifestyle with limited school Pathogens also evolveThe fitness of pathogens ultimately depends on their ability to be transmittedThe individuals that spread are the ones with the best ability to survive reproduce and be transmittedsurvival of the fittestHow infectious an agent is dependant on its ability to spread and to transmit is important to its fitnessStep by step resistance development to drugssurvival of the fittest 1 A bunch of bacteria variety2 Get bathed in antibiotics Most of the normal bacteria die3 The resistant bacteria multiply and become more common4 Eventually the entire infection evolves into a resistant strainEx Tuberculosis study between New cases and relapse casesEx Penicillin resistance among Pneumoccocus bacteria in childrenResistance pathogens need to be constantly attacked by drugs to do very wellmaybeif they detoxify themselves they can be defeatedmaybe old antibiotics can help cure new strains since they evolves so muchSuperbugs Bacterial pathogens that are resistant to multiple drugs this has causedMycobacterium tuberculosisClostridium diffcileStaphyloccocus epidermisStreptococcus pneumoniaeIs virulence an adaptive trait that increases the fitness of pathogens
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