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Lawrence Murphy

PS 260- Cognitive Psych Chapter 1: BE THE SQUIRREL Initially we tried to find only objective things about human thought, but it doesn’t really reflect what it means to be human Cognitive science: interdisciplinary effort to understand the mind Unconscious inference: perceiver plays an interpretive role in experiences, perception is not a passive process, perceptual and cognitive experience altered by previous experience, these processes often occur outside of conscious awareness. Before cognitive psychology: -psychophysics, study of sensation and perception, unconscious inference, much of what we understand about the world is unconscious, first initial stages of receiving and perceiving information -the perceiver plays an interpretive role in understanding the world -interpretation is affected by previous experience -cognitive and perceptual processes often occur outside of perceptual awareness -structuralism: contents of mental experience, all conscious experiences can be broken down into basic mental elements: sensations, feelings, images. Based on introspection, and reporting one’s own experience. Experience is colored by perception; it is not observable or objective. -functionalism: the functions of mental experience, stream of consciousness not made of parts but an ever changing collective stream. Focuses on mental processing more than the structure and had more impact on cognitive psychology than functionalism. -behavioralism: the mind is unobservable; looking at the response is objective and scientific. -Ebbinghaus: pioneering experiments on memory -recall is more difficult as length of list increases -retention increases with number of Repetitions -savings: reduction in number of trials it takes to learn the same list -memory performance declines the longer the time between acquisition and recall -forgetting is initially rapid and then slows (forgetting curve). -Bartlett: objected to artificiality of Ebbinghaus -studied memory for stories (more meaningful to people) -discovered errors in memory. Memory is a reconstructive process guided by schemata: generalized knowledge structures based on experience. -Gestalt psychology: emphasizes the role of organizational processes in mental processing, the whole is different than the sum of its parts. Current cognitive psychology impacted in this as it sees the mind as an active processor -Chomsky: challenges behaviorism using the example of language, productivity and novelty Stimulus Response Explanations: do not account for data. Learning without responding. Rats tested in T maze, some rats ran the maze, some rats were pushed through the maze in carts by experimenter. All rats then ran the maze on their own and the all the rats, even those not running but pushed in carts, knew where to find the food. Learning without reinforcement. Rats tested in a complex maze. One reinforced everytime they reach goal, one never reinforced, one not reinforced until day 11. All rats learned it despite differences in reinforcement, they learned it because they had travelled in it. (Latent Learning) Cognitive maps. Rats run maze until error free. Then a block is placed in the maze. Rats learn to avoid block and not just take the shortest path as they have learned the maze. Connectionism: a brain metaphor for cognition, accounts for cognition based on hardware (the brain), Assumptions: cognitive system is made up of billions of interconnected nodes that come together to form complex networks, nodes can be activated and the pattern of activation corresponds to conscious experience. Knowledge is represented in patterns of nodes distributed throughout the vast network. Neurons may be excitatory, inhibitory or neutral to the connection, similarly nodes also have these connections and they can be strengthened if they are activated at the same time, thus neurons can learn. Brain: -anterior (front) -posterior (back) -dorsal (top) -ventral (bottom) -lateral (closer to periphery) -medial (closer to midpoint) Hindbrain: -balance, activation, basic life functions Midbrain: -sensory activities, brain arousal Forebrain: -organization, language, most of the brain, is mostly cerebral cortex, all higher cognitive functioning. Broca’s area: expressing language Wernicke’s area: understanding language Frontal lobe: -posterior area (motor cortex): voluntary motor movement -anterior area (prefrontal cortex): involved in planning and executing complex actions -broca’s area: speech production Parietal lobe: -important in attention and immediate memory Occipital lobe: -at the back -primary visual cortex: responsible for vision and ability to recognize visual patterns Temporal lobe: -more on the side -auditory complex: responsible for hearing -Wernicke’s are: speech comprehension Associated areas: -believed to integrate the processing of other brain areas Hemispheric asymmetries: -Contralateral organization (LR/RL) everything on right side controlled by left side brain and vice versa -Hemispheric specialization: -right hemisphere: verbal processing -left hemisphere: nonverbal processing Split brain patients (when people had seizures they would have their corpus callosum severed) -left visual field and right visual field in both eyes, left side of both eyes goes to right side brain (non-verbal processing), right field of both eyes goes to left side brain (verbal processing). -shown brain and heart, when asked what they saw they say heart, when they point to a picture of what they see with their left hand, they point to the brain. Subcortical structures: Limbic system- integral to learning and remembering new information, processing emotion Hippocampus: vital for encoding new information into memory Amygdala: regulating emotion, forming emotional memories, critical in fear Thalamus: relay point that routes incoming sensory information to appropriate area of the brain (except olfactory) Hypothalamus: controls hormones, plays a role in emotion and maintenance of survival processes (temperature, food) Hypothalamus + Thalamus: Diencephalon Basal ganglia: controls movement and motor based memories Tools of cognitive neuroscience: How well the technique informs the precise nature of brain activity (how) Spatial resolution (where) Temporal resolution (when) Single dissociation: have patient with one area of brain damage do two things, ex have patient identify a picture and a word, and compare performance on two tasks proposed to differ in the use of one cognitive process, light evidence that brain area A is responsible for process X and not process Y. Double dissociation: two patients with different areas of brain damage: patient with damage to area A shows deficits in X not Y, patient with damage to area B shows deficits in Y not X, more strong evidence that brain area A is responsible for process X and B for process Y. (how Broca and Wernicke discovered their areas of the brain). EEG: uses electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity created in neurons below, reveals when a cognitive process occurs, difficult to pinpoint location ERP (event related potentials): allows us to plot where and when electrical activity occurs in response to an event, allows researchers to plot roughly the activity of the brain MEG Magnetic encephalography: non-invasive technique used to measure magnetic activity of the brain, slightly more detail and better information about location, uses superconducting quantum inference device (SQUID), TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), can shut off a small part of the brain close to the surface, which can show us where certain skills take place in the brain, produces a temporary lesion, non-invasive Imaging techniques (MRIs, fMRIs): compare resting brain’s blood flow to brain’s blood flow during certain thoughts. Difference indicates parts of brain active during task. These have good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. PET, radioactive substance, invasive, to track blood flow fMRI, magnetic detectors, detects oxygenated vs non-oxygenated blood, oxygenated blood has iron and so is registered on a magnet, we can trace where blood is being used, images show up in slices **descriptive information due to imaging tell us what activity occurs with certain processes but by no means guarantees causation. Dogs have four legs, Charles has four legs, doesn’t mean Charles is a dog. Bruner argues- behaviorism holds us back, we need to look at cognitive processing in meaningful contexts. Chapter 2 Sensation: physiological processes that underlie information intake Perception: immediate organization and interpretation of sensations Bottom-up processing: proceeds from the stimulus to the neural activity driven by this stimulus to its eventual identification (data-driven processing) Top down processing: bring to bear what we expect, what we know and what we experience from the surrounding context in determining what it is we are sensing (conceptually driven processing) Constructive view: infer or construct a percept based on the sensory information we’re receiving and our previous knowledge and experience Directive view: what we perceive about our visual environment is picked up directly Perceptual organization process: first major task of the visual system, is to impose structure on it. Principles of visual organization: Proximity: objects near one another are grouped together Similarity Good continuation: flow Closure: complete the incomplete Common fate: headed to the same place or at the same speed Common region: belonging to a common designated area Synchrony: elements that occur at the same time Element connectedness: common elements Figure-ground: tendency to segregate visual scenes to a background and foreground Global processing: we tend to see the large picture fist, exception is the himba tribe, maybe the global processing is not universal but culturally learned Synesthesia: experiences which input from one sensory system produces an experience not only in that modality but another as well ex. Hearing purple. There tends to be consistency in the associations made. Weak synesthesia: sensing cool colours McGurk effect: effect occurs upon simultaneous presentation of speech sound and a silent visual display of a speaker pronouncing a different speech sound, the resulting perception is an average of the two sounds. Ventriloquist effect: a visual cue that is presented simultaneously with an auditory stimulus biases the localization of the sound -imagination involved in hands behind back or on monitor, imagination influences our performance Access consciousness: what cognitive system is actually doing Phenomenal consciousness: knowing what the cognitive system is doing Monitoring consciousness: ability to reflect on one’s cognitive processing Self-consciousness: Knowing what the self is doing -most things are out of phenomenal consciousness -signal detection theory: perceptual experiences made of sensitivity of particular sensory system, and response bias Semantic priming: tendency for the processing of one stimulus to enhance the speed at which a related stimulus is processed (primed with the word salt to react to the word pepper faster) Subliminal perception: below phenomenal consciousness, do things need to be processed to be understood, just because not attended to doesn’t mean subliminal, it means not perceived or influencing our perception, there does have to be some kind of processing involved for it to have any effect Supraliminal: being aware of stimulus Subjective threshold: making a forced guess of what it is Objective threshold: when forced to guess they do no better than a person making a guess -What people think the message is may have more of an impact than the actual message (self-esteem, memory tapes switched) Affordances: action possibilities offered by a particular object ex. Chairs afford sitting, stoves do not, we directly and naturally perceive properties and functions of objects. Affordance perception is highly accurate Embodied perception: perception desnt involve “thinking” as much as bodily reactions, visual perception modulated by energetic considerations to promote efficient energy expenditure (runners on the hill) Illusion of conscious will: our minds may perceive we are in control of our bodies because our cognition coincides with physical events (authorship processing: processes and events making us believe we caused them) Blindsight: despite lack of visual awareness able to process some information about the stimuli Ch3 Attention: monitoring the events that are occurring in our external environment, it is strategically and actively manipulated Limited capacity (autistic people seem to not have the ability to block things out which inhibits) Flexible: can be shifted Voluntary control Pre-attentive processing: quickly occurring before our attention is brought to a stimulus, quick, effortless, access consciousness Post attentive processing: occurs once attention has been focused on a stimulus, slow and effortful, phenomenal consciousness Subitizing: ability to quickly enumerate a small number of objects (under 3), takes place pre-attentively Visual attention: Goal driven: observer has a goal in mind and guides the attentional process (top- down) Stimulus driven: passive observer and attention is “grabbed” by some stimulus (bottom-up) Treisman and Gelade (stimulus driven): distracting letters, looking for a blue letter, relatively easy, number of distractors makes no difference. Conjunction search must look for green T therefore it must be both green and a T, some distractors are green or a T. This takes a bit longer as the brain must think more to rule out the distractors and it takes longer the more distractors there are. Space-based: focusing attention on a spatial location (like a spot-light) areas in the middle of focus get most attention, on the periphery gets less attention Laberge: trials where letters create a common word, if the center is at the beginning of alphabet press button, end don’t press button. Other trials where they press a button for 7 not if no 7. Reaction time slows as 7 approaches center concluding that vision is like a spotlight because of clarity to the center. Object-based: ex searching for an object, following an object Egly, Driver, Rafal: assessed both space based and object based attention, press key as soon as object is detected, uses linear objects, found that vision is more likely to follow the object than be a circular spot light, not just about focus but about objects involved and connections Feature integration theory: visual search as a two stage process, pre-attentively basic features are registered quickly then if an item cannot be classified post- attentive processing takes over. Suggestion is that the stages are distinct and discrete from one another. - limited search shows pre-attentive guides post attentive -easier to find targets among distractors Easier to find orange in red than red in orange, easier to search for orange because it includes a feature (yellowness) that is not present in the red distractors Low prevalence effect: (Wolfe et al) bag screening task, searching for weapons, had high, low or medium prevalence test group. Less frequently the object occurred the worse people were at finding it: low prevalence leads to error prone responding Fleck and Mitroff: added another independent variable, giving people a chance to fix their answer if they feel they may have missed something, picture of a handful of items, looking for something there. If low prevalence effect is perceptual- truly missing the target, accuracy should be the same even with opportunity to correct. If people are responding too quickly before they have a chance to process it or think, then having the chance to correct will result in more correct answers, no correction condition replicated baggage study, in correction condition error rates were low Van Wert etc: used correction but used same display as Wolfe et al and found that giving corrections made no difference, may be due to the suitcase being harder than the images, when target was difficult and target was perceptually missed by overly fast responding the participants were unaware of it. Attentional blink: period of time after detecting a visual stimulus before another one can be detected Change blindness or inattentional blindness: inability to notice very obvious stimulus (gorilla) Coherence: notion that visual attention is necessary to hold elements of a visual scene together Attentional set: refers to one’s strategy or mind when watching a visual scene Perceptual set: similar to attentional set but based on culture and experience and takes place over time . Attenuation theory: unattended information is not completely blocked from further analysis, it is attenuated or “turned down”. Two tasks: speech shadowing and light detection, reaction time costs, difference in time with interference and without Late-selection theory: all incoming information is identified or recognized. After the information is identified, only the selected piece of information emerges to phenomenal consciousness Multimode theory: attention is flexible, people can switch from early to late modes of attention, late selection costs more in terms of attentional capacity Psychological refractory period: period of time where response to second stimulus will be slowed due to continuing processing of first stimulus Stimulus onset asynchrony: time between two events, as time between two events increases we start to register it more Dual task paradigm: -multitasking is possible but has costs to both tasks -bottleneck metaphor: tasks interfere to the degree which they tap into the same resources -simultaneous attention style: native American, attend to at least two events effectively -alternative attentional style: European American, attend to things in serial Stroop effect: ability to name the ink colour is disrupted when the word spelled is a different name , reading is an automatic process Differences between automatic and controlled processes are the degrees of control, intention and attentional efficiency Action slip: occurs in the absence of attention, automatic process takes over Data driven error: external events cause innapropriate schema to activate Capture error: intended action similar to another that is very familiar Associative activation error: internal intention activates the wrong schema “whats up” “great” Loss of activation error: forget what you were doing Description error: carry out intended action on the wrong item, cereal in the fridge -more likely to make these mistakes when you’re tired or stressed Auditory processing likened to a gateway that only allows some information into conscious awareness -selective attention tasks- pay attention to some things and not to others -people are quite capable of listening to one side and ignoring the other, in this case they are unable to tell meaning of the other side, they can determine physical features of the sound (ex. Male voice) -this seems to confirm Early selection theory: initial processing of auditory information that encodes each source of information based on physical characteristics, information sources are filtered and one source is selected for further processing. We can process a good deal more of the auditory scene than we know, an auditory stimulus can grab our attention Cocktail party phenomenon: when we aren’t listening to another’s conversation but we tune in when we hear our name because it has meaning to us, not possible if there is Early selection theory- because if this is the case we are ignoring them we don’t process our name -when ears are switched we can follow the meaning Coreen and Wood: a slight pain for certain words, when listening to a story and shadowing it in the unattended ear the words play and when the words that they were shocked for shows a fear reaction Late selection theory: both meanings are fully processed without us being conscious of it and when it is important we become conscious of it ( access consciousness) Chapter 4: Executive attention: processes where we direct our attention in response to situational demands -inhibition is crucial to screen out what isn’t immediately important -immediate memory: allows for maintenance and manipulation of information currently in consciousness Limit in duration- must be rehearsed to be maintained in immediate memory Limit in capacity: magical number of 7 +- 2 (Memory span is longest string of information that a person can immediately recall) Chunking: we can recode information into chunks to be able to store more, limited by rate of presentation and knowledge base Three memory systems: Sensory: extremely brief representation of a just represented stimulus, conceived as visual persistence, stimulus removed immediately after presentation will fade naturally Long-term Short-term: mental workbench where we rehearse or recycle information, it can flow back and forth from STM and LTM Working memory model: immediate memory envisioned as a number of interacting systems; phonological loop: inner voice to “hear” the information internally, repetition including a phonological store and a subvocal rehearsal mechanism, visual representation is converted to some kind of verbal so it can be repeated. Phonological interference- its hard to remember things while reciting unimportant syllables. The longer the word the harder it is to remember because of the limited store, similar words can be forgotten or more difficult to keep track of. Concrete words recalled better than abstract words. Visuo-spatial sketchpad: responsible for the storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information as separate components. Episodic buffer: goes between STM and LTM Central executive: keeps track of which processes being used. Selective attention, task switching, manipulation of material in working memory, response inhibition (questionable as a theory) Unitary memory view: immediate memory seen not as separate function but currently activated part of long-term memory. Embedded process theory: immediate memory as the momentary activation of information in long-term memory, within this temporary activated information is the information that we’re aware of which is the focus of attention, also includes executive process that controls information in and out of attentional focus Decay: loss of information from immediate memory due to the passage of time Interference: information is lost due to interference of other information- proactive: new info disrupted by old. Retroactive: old interfered with by new. Displacement view: new info bumps out old info Overwirting view: a new item overwrites old ones -another dimension of immediate memory is sensitive to meaning -mind wandering: less likely to occur when we are in a consuming task, associated with reduced awareness, wanders without our intention, aids problem solving and creativity -processes involving avoiding some mistakes can make them more likely to happen Intentional operating process: activates thought relevant to goal at hand Monitoring process: responsible for keeping track of thoughts that might foil the goal -if mental capacity is compromised then activated thoughts spill into behavior -correlation between poverty and poor memory due to chronic stress -high multi taskers have a broad attention base and difficulty focusing attention -key features of executive function: inhibitory control, immediate memory, cognitive flexibility Integrative mind-body training: achieve a mind body balance by meditation and mindfulness by being in the present moment, lead to better attention Ch 5 Object recognition: -categories exist at different levels Bottom up recognition (from stimulus) or top down (using expectations or knowledge) Rosch: superiordinate- animal, basic level- bird, subordinate level- chickadee, basic level is entry point of recognition, the default of recognition Palmer Rosch and Chase: found recognition depends on perspective, recognition is best when object is in usual orientation Biderman and Gerhardstein: used priming (previous exposure task), presented object, then same/different object in same/different orientation. Once primed, reaction time speeds up even in unusual orientation (some kind of categorizing in brain must occur) Palmer: sketches of everyday scenes, sometimes preceding scene was consistent and other times inconsistent with the object, sometimes misleading, resembling something that belongs in the scene but isn’t, identification of objects was best when followed a scene that was consistent, worst when misleading Davenport and Potter: interactive effects of scenes and objects in recognition, photos/ familiar scenes, followed by a mask (briefly presented pattern to help get rid of image). Varied by relationship between scene and object such as consistent, priest in church, inconsistent; priest on football field, more accurately identify object than background, more accurate when consistent Theories of object recognition: Parts based- incoming parts parsed into components matched to info in memory -stored representation includes list of features (feature analysis) they are primitives called geons (total of 36 simple shapes that combine to form most complex shapes) -view point invariant (shouldn’t matter what perspective it’s seen from) RBC stages of recognition: -edge extraction -search for non-accidental features (most likely to be part of object and not due to perspective) -parsing at boundary areas, geons determined and matched to memory representations and object identified Tarr and Pinker: priming procedure, training phase (shown shapes with names) presented in same orientation until memorized then they must identify at different orientation, RT increased as function of orientation IB Image based approach: objects are recognized by comparing to stored replica Template matching: exact template must be found Multiple views approach: based on experience we have multiple stored view of objects, supported by physiological studies Logothetis Pauls Poggio: taught monkeys to recognize three dimensional shapes from different angles until they were equally proficient from any angle, neural activity measured and different sets of cells responded most strongly to certain objects (showing different pathways for different objects) and the pathways decreased activation with increases in rotation. Palmeri and Tarr: experience plays no role in determining the primitives or architecture of the system, experience comes in as we learn configuration of primitives, object recognition is the same as visual memory Maybe both: parts based for initial categorization, viewpoint dependent mechanisms and distinction within category is image based Tarr and Bulthoff: object recognition can be seen as continuum, at one end very view-point independent mechanisms PB when gross categorical judgments required (such as bird vs hammer), at the other end heavily viewpoint dependent mechanisms IB, such as difference between chickadee and robin Face recognition: completely different process than object recognition Prosopagnosia-unable to recognize faces, usually due to stroke etc Thatcher illusion: inverting faces disrupts the ability to recognize them much more than objects. Recognizing objects: first order information about relation of parts, faces- second order, first order of typical face, not encoded as mouth, eyes, etc but as entire objects Tanaka Fara: Larry’s face and Larry’s house, when whole thing presented RT is similar, when parts presented house RT is similar to whole but parts of face RT is much longer Special mechanism view: dissociations between object and face recognition, one can be impaired without the other, inversion hurts face recognition but not object. Individual level as entry point, lower than subordinate level, expertise is special but faces aren’t Individual differences: women are better at both emotion recognition on faces and at recognition of faces Blais Jack Sheepers: ethnicity of face to be identified is faster with your own race Keenan: presented participants’ faces turning from their face to one of a celebrity, asked to point out where it is no longer them. Responding with left hand “not them” occurred later than with right hand. Right side brain more connected to identity Epley and Whitchurch: tendency to see oneself as more attractive than you actually are, made their image a range from less attractive to more attractive than they are, people judged themselves as 10% more attractive than they are, same effect occurs when looking at their friends- specialized processing associated with the self extends to the processing of family and friends McBain Norton and Chen: participants shown line drawings of objects of upright or inverted face or tree, women more accurate than men with upright and inverted faces Names of faces as final stage of retrieval RT face recognition < biographical info< retrieving name Bruce and Young (serial account): face must activate representation in face recognition unit, FRU must activate Person Identity Node (PIN), biographical info then Terminal Node determines name Interactive activation and competition model (in parallel, Interactive Activation and Competition IAC model): FRU, PIN, SIU (semantic representation of biographical info and name) bio info has many sources while name has few so takes longer to find the memory Bredart, Brennen: names of good friends and family should have more info, identify if cue belongs to face, RT faster with names than info Semantic networks: knowledge stored in the form of associative networks. Non-human primates can’t recognize their own face Self recognition may involve right-frontal cortex Tactile recognition: haptics (furriness, warmth, softness, can’t tell by looking) Klatzky Lederman and Metzger: exploratory procedures (precise movements of the hands in exploration and identification of an object -lateral motion -pressure -static contact -unsupported holding -enclosure -contour following Material of objects easier to determine than shape, some EPs provide a wider range of information than others but come with a cost because they take the longest to perform Olfactory: people have a tough time describing and identifying smells termed “olfactory-verbal gap”, difficulty in forming olfactory images, odor naming is difficult, odor recognition is much better, women better at naming odors Semantic networks: common way to describe the representation of categories and concepts in terms of semantic networks, knowledge is stored in the form of associative networks, concepts are represented by nearby nodes that respond to concept or features, strength of activation decreases as a function of time, distance and number of concepts activated Category verification task: used to determine how we access categorical knowledge Feature verification task: how the features of categories are stored and accessed Organization allows for quick and efficient understanding, we can infer knowledge of what is not explicitly stated, can even support new learning Categories are an organization concept: Natural kinds (occur naturally), Artifacts (designed and used by humans to serve a function), Ad hoc (formed in the service of some goal) Similarity based approaches: categorization as a matter of judging similarity between target object and some standard in long-term memory Classical view: items are classified into particular categories if they have certain features or characteristics – but very difficult to specify features that are both necessary and sufficient, graded structure; table, chair, couch, some more like furniture, some not nothing to explain why it is more or less , also fuzzy boundaries between categories Prototype approach: more flexible, based on features of a category that members are likely to have, evaluated and classified based on their resemblance to other members, high family resemblance are seen as typical members and seen as a standard or prototype. Prototypes are created through repeated experience with category members Posner, Goldsmith and Welton: dot patterns, show dots that approximate a shape (like triangle) and the participants confirm they have seen the prototype shape when it was never presented- but people are sensitive to the ways in which certain properties of category members do and do not go together, also shapes sensitive to context Exemplar approach: we represent categories in terms of examples or category exemplars, extreme version has no abstraction or generalization, representation of a concept contains every single encounter we’ve had with it, and we take one of these as a standard, the standard we use will change based on circumstances. But it doesn’t make sense that our brains should have to store all of these, prototype experiment hadn’t even shown an exemplar Essentialist approaches: categories have some underlying nature or essence but- very fuzzy to describe what this essence is, hard to distinguish between what one knows about a concept and one’s representation Rips: presented subjects with stories of made up organisms, participants were likely to label them in a particular category, there was a manipulation in the story and similarity judgments and categorization judgments were influenced differently by the change manipulation, categorization is a personal theory about what a concept represents Folk biology-investigators propose knowledge of biological systems constitutes a cognitive module that has evolved in the service of adaptation to the environment; gradation of hierarchical categories seems to be the same across cultures Ch 6 Declarative memory: factual information about the world and personal experiences Episodic memory: one’s memory for personally experienced events with contextual elements, recollective, emotional component Semantic memory: knowledge or information about the world that doesn’t contain the contextual elements, isolated fact, resistant to forgetting Procedural memory: knowing how, difficult to verbalize, skills, formation of simple associations Prospective memory: remembering to perform an action in the future can be event- based or time-based Encoding: acquisition Storage Retrieval Explicit memory tasks- specific event from the past Implicit memory: indirect influences, word fragment completion, word stem completion Prospective memory: remembering to do something in the future, can be event- based or time-based Retrospective memory: retrieval is triggered by external instruction initiating search of memory, or self-initiated Massed repetition: repeated presentations that occur closely together Distributed repetition: repetition over time, advantage termed as spacing effect Deficient-processing view: massed repetitions lead to deficient processing of the second presentation- you don’t pay as much attention Encoding- variability view: massed presentations amount to little more than one presentation, memory representations will be similar and indiscriminable to find in a memory search Bahrick: Spanish classes, long term retention occurs better when learned over a longer period of time Cohen and Stanhope: cognitive psychology class, more exposure and hands on practice and spaced repetition Cepeda, Vuhl, Rohrer, Wixted: combination of study interval SI and retention interval RI, as retention interval increased optimal recall occurred at increasingly longer study intervals, the best length of study interval depends on how long you want to remember it Rehearsal: how the item is thought of internally Craik and Watkins: lists of words, keep track of last one with a p, number of intervening items made no difference in recall Maintenance rehearsal: maintaining the item in consciousness, ineffective in enhancing one’s ability to recall but some improvement in recognition Elaborative rehearsal: thinking about the meaning of the information to be remembered, other information in long term memory Hyde and Jenkins: has participants encode words by either rating pleasantness or estimating number of letters, memory was much better when participants rated pleasantness Incidental learning: participants are not told they are testing memory Intentional learning: participants are told that this is a memory test Levels of processing theory (Craig and Lockhart): how information is processed is the determinant of how it is remembered from superficial to deep analysis of meaning Rogers, Kuiper and Kirker: encoded words by asking, “does this describe you?”, self- referenced memories are encoded more deeply than analyzing just meaning Cunnigham, Turk, MacDonald, MacRae: had to imagine they won an item, items were better remembered when owned by the participant Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada: processing information in terms of survival value lead to better recall Bower, Clarke, Lesgold and Winzenz: had participants organize or not organize the list of items, those that organized remembered over 90% after second trial, organization could be close companion to chunking Tulving: asked participants to memorize lists with no inherent structure, many imposed lists to help them recall the info Distinctiveness: how well information is distinguished from other information in memory, von restorff phenomenon Material-appropriate processing: Relational processing: describes the degree to which we process items in terms of their interrelationships and degree that encoding allows organization Individual-item processing: degree to which we process items in terms of individual characteristics, aided by distinctive processing Goschke + Kuhl: encoding lists of instructions for 2 groups, one group told they were performing it, RT shorter for the group told they were performing it Enactment effect: people are better at remembering action phrases if they enact the activity, motor component and better audio visual cues to the memory -participants remembered words from a script better when told they would be performing Noice and Noice: studied college students, active experiencing was better than partial experiencing Transfer-appropriate processing: encoding is defined by what is required at retrieval Semantically encoded words should do better at a recognition test Phonologically encoded words should do better in rhyme recognition test Availibility: is info in memory Accessibility: can you get to the info (retrieve it) TAP- focus on encoding, way encoded should be relevant to way retrieved ESP- focus on retrieval, best retrieval cues tap into something at encoding Context-dependency effects: memory is better when retrieval is similar to the context when it was encoded, Godden and Baddely studied deep-sea divers’ memory above and underwater, they had better recall in the environment where it was encoded regardless of which it was. Outshining hypothesis: context cues are last resort if free recall and no other cues are present Roediger and Karpicke: had students either study, study, study, test or study, test, test, test and the ones that tested themselves regularly remembered the information longer (but didn’t do quite as well initially)- Labeled the Testing effect. Testing with short answer questions was better than with multiple choice. Encoding specificity: memory depends on the overlap between what’s happening at retrieval and what happened at encoding Habib & Nyberg: use fMRI to compare brain activity between tip of the tongue and eventually remembered information, words eventually remembered showed activity in Medial Temporal Lobe and Left interior frontal cortex which were active at encoding. MTL region distinguished between not recalled but recognized and LIFC distinguished those recalled and recognized, MTL may be necessary for encoding and LIFC for retrieval. Nairne: what determines successful memory performance is cue distinctiveness- effectiveness of a cue in singling out a specific memory Craik: age related deficits in memory due to extent self-initiated recall is required Focal processing: one thing at a time, with a cue more likely to trigger the intention automatically than non-focal processing Autonoetic consciousness: reliving past experience Noetic consciousness: familiarity with the fact Remember- Know paradigm: remember judgment; recall vividly presentation of the word, effortful searching deeper processing, know judgment; shallow processing no experience of reliving automatic retrieval. Remember judgments more likely to be mistaken. Remember feeling may be the cause of Déjà vu. Shirot et al: shown negative and neutral photos, fMRI scans during recognition and testing remember-know judgment. Enhanced remember judgments for negative photos but this subjective feeling was not associated with memory accuracy which was the same for negative and neutral photos. Source of subjective sense of remembering: amygdale, function of amygdale boosts confidence, confidence far outweighs Warrington and Weiskrantz: study amnesiacs and non-amnesiacs, amnesiacs showed recall of words for implicit memory tests, showing priming just like non- amnesiacs Jacoby: had participants generate the word or read the word, memory for recognition was best if participants generated, memory for identification was best for participants who had read the words Diencephalon for declarative memories, Hippocampus important for what, when and where. CH 7 Autobiographical memory Neisser- ecological validity Banaji and Crowder- internal validity Autobiographical memory: experiences that comprise a person’s life, feature an experience of remembering, involve interpretation on the part of the rememberer Linton: some memories undergo a transition from autobiographical memories to generic semantic memories (autobiographical facts). Targeted event recall: requires the recall of specific events or well-defined periods from one’s life and can allow for some assessment of accuracy, usually there is corroborating information -The way you attempt to recall autobiographical events affects your subjective feelings of those memories -subjective distance of memory depends on how much the participant felt they had changed since the event -remembering forward creates a narrative and the change takes time, the participant will feel as if they are further away -backward recall gives little feeling of change and feels closer to the event Diary technique: participant keeps a running record of events so firmer conclusions about memory accuracy can be reached, allows for testing effectiveness of various types of cues Cue Word Rubin Wetzler Nebes: used cue word technique to discover memory function across life-span. Very few memories of early years, almost none before the age of three (childhood amnesia), large number of memories from 10-30 (reminiscence bump), standard forgetting curve for last 20 years (Usher & Neisser) If the child was 3 or younger at the time of event, family stories actually led to fewer memories than if the child was 4 or 5; in that case it lead to stronger recall. This may be because of fragility of early memories. Childhood amnesia: (Wanes about 4.7) -immaturity of developing infant brain -people who have suffered damage to hippocampus are unable to effectively store events recently experienced but have ability to learn, perceptual and cognitive skills -neurological deficit doesn’t explain childhood amnesia in toddlerhood, children themselves do not show childhood amnesia, they can remember what happened to them when they were even littler kids -developing language skills may be a factor, children begin to remember events from their lives as soon as they are capable of describing the events, most dramatic language strides between 2-4 and start verbally recounting experiences developing autobiographical memory -different ways of recounting experiences: narrative (families reminiscing over past events), elaborative style (long and detailed discussion, to daughters), pragmatic (succinct, less detailed, to sons). Style of reminiscing affects childhood memories. -sense of self: knowledge that one is a person with unique and recognizable characteristics, can serve as causal agent, organizer of autobiographical experiences. Wang: recall of early childhood events in US and Taiwanese adults, US had earlier childhood memories than did Taiwanese, US memories reflected personal autonomy Jack et al.: over two years 2-4 mothers were asked to record natural conversations. Researchers recorded number of maternal elaborations and repetitions, adolescents with the earliest memories were those who had enjoyed the most elaboration Nelson and Fulvish: autobiographical memory is a complex ability that emerges as a number of abilities and contextual factors. Basic explicit memory abilities, narrative, memory talk, developing consciousness of the past Reminiscence Bumps: -most life milestones -reminiscence bump not only for one’s own events but autobiographical facts such as books or movies they prefer -things learned in adulthood are remembered best -perhaps these memories are due to being thought of/ rehearsed often due to their importance -perhaps due to relevance to identity formation Peak functioning account: cognitive abilities and brain function are at their peak in early adulthood, Janssen and Mure collect internet autobiographical memories, they were mostly unimportant seeming to account for peak functioning account rather than importance Forgetting: -lack of rehearsal, interference -when events are regular, routine, they blend together -Wang:Euro-american cultures tend to remember specific episodes (autobiographical memories), Asian cultures tend to remember generic memories (autobiographical facts), culture influences what is rehearsed, or possibly it influences what is encoded rather than what is forgotten. Studies show that cultures have similar memory abilities. Wang gave participants a passage to section into meaningful events. Western cultures focus on specific objects and events and use small segments, Eastern cultures focus on relationship between events and objects resulting i
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