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Chapter 3 Part 2.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

Class 3, Lecture 5, Chapter 3: Recognizing Objects Feature Nets  McClelland and Rumelhart‟s (1981) model of word recognition included two additions: o Excitatory and inhibitory connections between detectors.  Inhibitory connects occur if one letter is detected it might excite letters that are common in the bigram for it and inhibit those that are not.  Certain letter combinations are more commonly seen. o Top-down connections from words to letters and letters to features.  Once the features of a letter are presented, the features not included are ignored.  You can have activation going to from the word level to the letter level to the feature level.  This is the reason why we can read text where the words are jumbled, es are changed to 3s, upside down text.  Similar feature nets may underlie our perception of objects.  The recognition by components (RBC) model includes an intermediate layer that is sensitive to geons, basic shapes proposed as the building blocks for all three- dimensional forms. o When we see a certain combination of geons we identify a certain object as being said object.  One piece of evidence supporting the representation of geons is that perceptually degraded pictures are better recognized if geons are preserved o When you take away the geons, individuals are less likely to know what the object is when distortion occurs  The object-superiority effect is analogous to the word-superiority effect.  Lines are perceived more accurately if presented in the context of an object. o the position of them on the screen o Getting a deeper recognition of objects when we see it as being part of a geon  Models of object recognition differ on whether object recognition depends on viewpoint. o In the recognition by components model, geons result in viewpoint- independent recognition.  Does not matter what side you see the object from you will be able to recognize the object. Do not mentally rotate anything to recognize the object.  Response should have quicker response time o Other proposals are viewpoint-dependent, requiring the remembered representation to be “rotated” into alignment with the current view.  Require more of a matching, see something and search our memory for something that matches it.  The more the object has to be rotated, the longer it takes to recognize. Different Objects, Different Recognition Systems?  Some evidence suggests that certain categories of objects are perceived using specialized mechanisms. o Not all objects are necessarily recognized using the same process  In particular, the recognition of faces may involve principles different from those discussed thus far. o Fusaform area where the face recognition occurs  One source of evidence for specialized face-processing mechanisms comes from prosopagnosia, a type of agnosia in which the visual object-recognition deficit is specific to faces. o Agnosia = the inability to recognize an object o Prosopagnosia = the inability to recognize faces o The fact that you can lose the inability to recognize faces but not objects indicates that the idea that there i
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