Class 4, Lecture 8, Chapter 6 – Interconnections between
Acquisition and Retrieval
Learning as Preparation for Retrieval
Recall that when we learn, we make connections between the newly acquired material
and representations already in memory.
These connections serve as retrieval paths when we need to remember the new
State-dependent learning – new material is most likely to be recalled when the
person is in the same mental, emotional, or biological state as when the material was
For example, materials learned while on land are best recalled while on land, and
materials learned while underwater are best recalled while underwater.
Context reinstatement, or recreating the context that was present during learning,
will improve memory performance.
o Fisher & Craik (1977) presented participants with word pairs and asked them
to remember the second word. The first word served as context.
o The word pairs were either semantically related or rhymed.
o During testing, the prime words were presented as cues or hints.
Two effects were observed:
Depth of processing effect – thinking about meaning at the
time of encoding provides an advantage, compared to thinking
about rhyming at encoding.
Context reinstatement effect – having the same kind of context