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Lecture 6

PS260 Lecture 6 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS260
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Semester
Winter

Description
Thursday January 19 2013h Lecture 2 Connectionism: a brain metaphor for cognition - Accounts for cognition based solely on the hardware (the brain) - Assumptions  cognitive system is make up of billions of interconnected nodes that come together to form complex networks  Nodes can be activated and the pattern of activation corresponds to conscious experience (this continues to exist in the brain)  Knowledge is represented in patterns of nodes distributed throughout the vast network (doing things in your head is activating the sae neurons it would take to actually do the move) An overview of the nervous system - The neuron: the basic cell of the nervous system Electrochemical information processors - Within a neuron (electrical)  Action potential: electrical signal through the neuron - Between neurons (chemical)  Action potential causes release of neurotransmitters (chemicals) into synapse The brain - A terminology tour:  Anterior (rostral) : front portion  Posterior (caudal): back portion  Dorsal (superior)L top portion  Ventral: bottom  Lateral: closer to periphery  Medial: closer to midpoint - Three main areas of the brain  Hindbrain: involved in basic life functions  Midbrain: involved in some sensory activities- helps to regulate brain arousal  Forebrain: comprises most of the brain- consists mainly of the cerebral cortex (primary neural substrate for higher cognitive functioning) - The cerebral cortex (picture)  Frontal lobe: • posterior area (motor cortex): involved in voluntary motor movement • anterior area (prefrontal cortex): involved in planning and executing complex actions • Broca’s area: speech production  Parietal lobe • Important in attention and immediate memory  Temporal lobe • Auditory cortex: responsible for audition • Wernicke’s area: involved in speech comprehension  Occipital lobe • Primary visual cortex: responsible for vision and ability to recognize visual patterns  Association areas: believed to integrate the processing of other brain areas - Hemispheric Asymmetries  Contralateral organization (LR/RL)  Hemispheric specialization: • right hemisphere: nonverbal processing • left hemisphere: verbal processing - split brain patients  severed corpus callosum to stop seizures • left visual field: right hemisphere: nonverbal processing • right visual field: left hemisphere: verbal processing Subcortical structures: - limbic system  integral to learning and remembering new information  processing emotion • hippocampus: vital for encoding new information into memory •
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