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Lecture 13

Lecture 13.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

Lecture 13Chapter 9 Concepts and Generic KnowledgeLecture OutlineDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceConcepts as TheoriesDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceWith both prototypes and exemplars judgments of category membership and judgments of typicality should go hand in handThis is because both judgments should be based in resemblance between the test case and the prototype or exemplarDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceHowever one problem with the viewpoint we have been describing is that typicality and category membership sometimes dissociateMoby Dick was not a typical whale but was still nevertheless a whaleDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceFor instance participants will rate some odd numbers as being better examples than others even though they also consider all odd numbers to fit this welldefined category Armstrong et al 1983Difficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceSome cases that do not have typical features are accepted as category membersEg a lemon that is painted with red and white stripes injected with sugar to make it sweet and then run over with a truck is still a lemonDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceWe also have the opposite situation in which cases that have all of the typical features are rejected as category memberseg a perfect counterfeit billDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceSimilar examples come from studies with childrenKeil 1986 found that children agreed it was possible to change a toaster into a coffeepot but not to change a skunk into a raccoonIn other words a skunk that looks sounds and acts like a raccoon is still a skunkDifficulties with Categorizing via ResemblanceAll of these examples suggest that some categories are reasoned about in terms of essential properties and not superficial attributesEg the abused lemon still has lemon DNA it still has seeds that would grow into lemon treesBut how do we decide which features to consider and which ones to ignoreConcepts as TheoriesSo far we have argued that categorization is based in comparing the resemblance of the test case to prototypes and exemplars This accounts for typicality effects and graded category membership
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