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Lecture 17

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Lecture 17Chapter 12 JudgmentLecture OutlineJudgment HeuristicsAnchoringDetecting CovariationAssessing the DamageJudgment HeuristicsThe representativeness heuristic is another example of attribute substitutionPeople often assume when making a judgment about a member of a category that the instances of the category resemble the prototype for the category and that the prototype resembles each instance stereotyping Judgment HeuristicsFor instance considerDo you assume anything about someone if you discover that he or she is a lawyer or an engineerIf a coin toss results in heads six times in a row what are the odds of getting tails the seventh timeIf you hear an anecdote about a marathon runner who has smoked for decades and is perfectly healthy does this mean that smoking is safeuse one instance to extrapolateJudgment HeuristicsThe representativeness heuristic may lead us to believe that all lawyers or all engineers are homogeneous a stereotypeWe assume that each individual member of a category has the traits we associate with the category overallJudgment HeuristicsThe representativeness heuristic may lead us to believe that the seventh coin toss is more likely to be tails the gamblers fallacy but the odds are still 5050We assume that what is true of a category as a whole is true of specific instances we encounter of that categoryThis is an example of reasoning from the population to an instanceJudgment HeuristicsThe representativeness heuristic may lead us to believe that smoking must be okay for your health based on one example anecdotal evidence or man who storiesWe assume that what is true of one instance of the category must be true of the category as a wholeThis is an example of reasoning from one instance to the populationJudgment HeuristicsAs another example of the representativeness heuristic consider a study in which participants watched videos of a prison guard discussing his job Hamill et al 1980
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