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Lecture 6

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Lecture 6Chapter 4 Paying AttentionLecture OutlineConclusions about selective attentionDivided AttentionPracticeSelective AttentionOther studies of attention focus on a phenomenon known as change blindness the inability of observers to detect changes in scenes they are looking directly atSee if you can detect the differences between the following pairs of picturesSelective AttentionSimilar effects of change blindness occur when people fail to notice continuity errors in filmsIn a particularly striking example participants failed to notice when the person asking them for directions changed identity following a brief interruption by two people carrying a doorSelective AttentionEarly studies of attention focused on when the perceiver selects the desired inputAccording to the earlyselection hypothesis the unattended input receives little to no analysisAll the information that is not attended to is lost According to the lateselection hypothesis all input receives analysis but only the attended input reaches consciousness or is rememberedCocktail party effect Selective AttentionBoth the early and lateselection hypotheses capture part of the truthFor instance the study discussed earlier showing that unattended stimuli have effects on perception seems to be a case of late selectionHowever the electrical activity of the brain for attended versus unattended inputs differs within 70 ms of stimulus presentation suggesting early selectionSelective AttentionAn experiment by Posner and Snyder 1975 illustrates that there are two kinds of priming related to attentionOne kind of priming is stimulusbased the other is expectationbasedFor this type of study the dependent variable is the response time to make a decision about the stimuliSelective AttentionSelective AttentionPosner and Snyder 1975 found in the lowvalidity condition that the primed condition was faster than neutralThis demonstrates an effect of repetition priming the receptors were warmed upBut the misled condition was not any slower than neutral
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