PS268 – Chapter 10: Tobacco 1
Tobacco – History
The Spanish - Amerindians sometimes, adopted ‘Tobaco’ but tobacco into
tubes made reeds, started a fire at one end of the reed and “drank” the smoke
from the other end, or rolled them up like a cigar.
Powdered tobacco was sometimes put into the mouth or such in the nose
though tube, the leaves were used to treat woods – variety of medicinal use.
Initially rejected by the church, hundreds of years after Columbus’s voyage it
became popular in Europe – commercial importation in quantity in 1600s.
Early Medicinal Use: Recognition grew in the 1500s – Jean Nicot cured the
migraine headache on the queen which made it “in” herbe sainte = “holy
plant” or the “holy plant against evils” Called Nicotine in 1753 after Linnaeus.
o Tobacco was dropped from the United States Pharmacopoeia in 1980s.
Spread of Tobacco: More than 60 species of Nicotiana –Nicotiana Tobacum:
major species grown today in more than 100 countries, large-leaf, used to be
indigenous to South America and Spanish monopolized production.
Nicotiana Rustica: Small-leaf and existed in the West Indies and North
America when Columbus arrived.
o Settlers took seeds of rustica back to England but it didn’t grow well
o 1612 – Rolfe got some tobacum species and grew and sold it well an
much was sold in London in 1619 – became big source of income.
Snuff: Snuff replaced the pipe in England, upper class and middle class by
1770, even the royalty.
Revolutionary War: Played important role – major products in which France
would lend the colonies money.
Chewing: Suitable for a country on the goth adequate spittoons, alternative to
smoking as a “fire hazard” start of the 20 century brought manufacturing.
Cigars: Reached high level in 1920 – 8 billon sold, lead to emergence of cigs.
Cigarettes: Reeds filled with tobacco with Spanish in 1518. 184 the French
were using them and the Crimean War circulated them through Europe. First
factory in 1856 in Britain. Smoking women appeared in 1919 (ad)
Tobacco Under Attack
King James of England (1604) wrote & published a strong antitobacco
pamphlet stating that it was “harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs”
NYC made it illegal in 1908 for a woman to use tobacco in public and in the
20s women were expelled from schools/jobs for smoking..
1930s and 40s indicated a link between smoking and cancer which led to a
temporary to decline in cigarette sales. Us responded 1) Formation of the
independent Council for Tobacco Research to look into health claims, 2) Mass
marketing of filtered cigarettes, which lowered nicotine content. (1960s)
1965 – cigarette packages had to contain warnings, ads for cigarettes were
banned in 1971 and smoking on interstate buses and airlines banned in 1990
1995 – plans to regulate tobacco – attacks from lawsuits seeking
compensation for health consequences of smoking. 2 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
Safer Cigarettes? Nicotine is what keeps smokers coming back for more – mid
1950s filter cigarettes were marketed – lower tar… so they increased the tar,
which defeated the whole purpose. Dominated the market in the 1980s.
FDA: 2000 US Supreme court rule them to have no authority to regulate – in
1009 Obama signed an Act that allows them to control aspects of tobacco.
Smokeless Tobacco: Early 1970s many smokers began to look for
alternatives to reduce the risk of lunch cancer. Chewing tobacco. Advantages
unlikely to cause lung cancer, less expensive
o Moist Snuff: finely chopped tobacco, h