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Chapter 11.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 11 – Comparative Cognition I: Memory Mechanisms Comparative - The investigation of behaviours that can‟t be Cognition characterized in terms of simple associations or reflexes - Animals have internal representations of their environment - Focus is all on cognitive abilities that could have been explained by classical or instrumental  Classical conditioning involves the learning of conditioning an association between CS and a US. As a result - The animal is performing an internal representation of this association, presentation of the CS - Interested in how the representations are formed and activates a representation (mental image) of the what aspects of the experiences are coded and how US and conditioned responding reflects the the experiences are used to guide behaviour status of this representation - Cognition means “knowledge or thinking” - Used to refer thought processes - Can lead to actions that cannot be explained on the basis of the external stimuli an individual experiences  On your way to work, you may start thinking at the time that you did not lock the door to your apartment - Cognitive ethology: claim that animals are capable of when you left home. Your returning cannot be conscious thought and intentionality. Conscious explained by the external stimuli you intent is the likely source of such clever and flexible encountered on your way to work. You come behaviour. across those stimuli every day without going - Comparative cognition refers to theoretical constructs back to check the door. Rather, your behaviour and models used to explain aspects of behaviour that is attributed to the thought that you might have cannot be readily characterized in terms of simple S- left your apartment unlocked. R or reflex mechanisms. - Cognitive mechanisms involve an internal representation or “mental” record of something and rules for manipulating that mental record. . Other: Animal Memory Paradigms Comparison of Learning and Memory Experiments - First thing that happens in both Learning & Memory is that participants are exposed to certain kinds of stimuli (acquisition). The information that was acquired is then retained for some time (retention interval). At the end of the retention interval, the participants are tested for their memory of the original experience, which requires retrieval or reactivation of the information encountered during acquisition. 1 - Ie: Riding a bicycle. To be a skilled bicyclist, you first have to be trained to balance, pedal, and steer the bike (acquisition). You then have to remember those training experiences (retention). And, when you get on a bicycle again, you have to reactivate the knowledge of bike riding (retrieval). Memory - Ability to respond to information that - Dog goes in the backyard and picks up a bone „dog was experienced at an earlier time remembers where the bone was‟ - The example on the right illustrates the - Any time any animals behaviour is determined by past existence of memory in animals is events, we can conclude that some type of memory is identified by the fact that their current involved behaviour is based on some aspect of their earlier experiences. Learning - An enduring change in how an - Learning is not possible without memory (you cannot organism responds to a situation have one without the other) because of prior experience with that type of situation - How does the stuff get in there (acquisition stage) Difference in - In the emphasis, what are we Experimental differences: Learning and manipulating here? - Acquisition: exposure to certain stimuli or Memory information - Retention: period of time that information is retained for - Retrieval: Reactivation of the information from acquisition Experimental All participants in a given experiments are tested for differences: - Focus on acquisition what they learned using the same test procedures i. Learning - Manipulate conditions of experiments acquisition - Focus is on acquisition phase – learning experiments involve manipulations of the conditions of acquisition. - The retention interval is not varied in learning experiments and is always long (day or longer). - Conditions of retrieval are also kept constant. - Manipulate retention and retrieval - Focus on retention and retrieval - Looks into cues of the memory ii. Memory - Manipulate conditions of retention - What effects the quality of the memory experiments and retrieval  Taking a vocab test on a set of technical terms in a - Focus on circumstances of retrieval college course, you may miss many items if the test Focus on retention and retrieval consists of a series of fill-in-the-blank questions for phases which you have to provide the technical terms. In - Acquisition is of interest only to contrast, you are likely to do better if you provided the extent that it is relevant to with a list of the technical terms and are merely retention and retrieval. required to match each term with its definition. - Unlike studies of learning, which  Schachter & Tulver identified five types of human employ only long retention learning and memory: procedural memory, intervals, studies of memory can perceptual memory, semantic memory, 2 employ retention intervals of any primary/working memory and episodic/declarative duration. memory. - Memory mechanisms have been classified in various ways depending on what is remembered (the content), how long the memory lasts (retrieval interval) and mechanisms involved in the memory. Different types of memory: - Reflects knowledge about - How long have you gone without riding a bike but relationships among features of the when you go back to riding a bike, you‟ll still know i. Procedural environment how to do it. memory - Involved in much of the research on classical and instrumental conditioning - Mediates the learning of behavioural and cognitive skills that are performed automatically - Memory of specific events that ii. Episodic Memory have a when and where component (more in Ch.12) Working and reference - Hunter (1913): memory: - Correct goal box of 3 signaled by light cue; varied delay - How long can we keep the animal in the start box before we release it and figure out which door has the light above? - Animals had to somehow remember which light had been on in order to find the food - The longer the animals were delayed, the more likely they were to make a mistake. - Found decreased memory performance with increased delay - Species differences: Rat (10 secs), raccoons (25 secs), dogs (5 min) - Reference Memory: memory of which light was on for each - I.e.: rules of the game trial - Information about what a mechanic has done - Working Memory: memory of recently is useful only in the context of general the relation between the light knowledge about cars and lubrication procedures. and food - Knowing which spices you have already added to a stew is useful only if you know the basics of cooking and flavouring food. i. Reference - Memory of stable (trial invariant) Memory features of a task - Long-term memory - Memory you need for incoming information - Long term retention of information necessary for the successful use of incoming and recently acquired information - Ie: what cards have been played so far on this 3 - All successful uses of working particular hand memory require appropriate - Mechanic changing the oil and lubricating a car has reference memories to remember which steps of the job he already finished, but only as long as that particular car is being serviced. - In cooking a good stew, you have to remember which species you have already put in before adding others, but once the stew is finished, you can forget this information. ii. Working - Memory necessary to complete a Memory particular task, after which point the information is best discarded - Operative when information has to be retained only long enough to complete a particular task, after which the information is best discarded because it is not needed or bc it may interfere with successful completion of the next trial - Illustrates the retention, for a limited duration of recently acquired information Delayed matching-to- - More versatile technique - Usually happens with pigeons in a skinner box sample (DMTS) available to study working - Pigeon looks at a light memory - First there is a start cue (middle of the three - Refinement of Hunter‟s key lights up) – this ensures pigeon is facing original procedure. the right direction - The sample stimulus is - Then the sample comes on, the light that the presented initially, followed by pigeon has to remember. Pigeon pecks on the the choice alternatives. sample a certain amount of time Response to the choice - Then everything goes dark (delay interval) alternative that is the same as - The pigeon has to hold the sample in memory the sample is reinforced. - Then the two side keys (not the sample) comes Delays introduced between on and one of the side keys will match the exposure to the sample and original sample and the other one is a distracter presentation of the choice - If he pecks the one that matches, he gets food alternatives provide a test of memory. A trial: - Start cue - Sample stimulus - Delay interval - Comparison (or choice) - Trial outcome (food or no food) - Intertrial interval (ITI) Other terminology: 4 (DMTS) i. Simultaneous - In training you usually start with - Symbolic MTS: if the red light is on, I peck MTS vs. DMTS MTS, then gradually you increase horizontal if I peck green, I peck vertical the delay interval ii. Identity MTS - In some cases the sample is versus symbolic physically identical to some other MTS comparisons; the sample and correct comparison are identical. - There is no physical comparison. 1. In a variety of species Has been used to 2. Using a variety of to-be- investigate working remembered stimuli memory: - Procedural determinants of DMTS: Grant (1976) - Showed how duration of sample and delay i. Nature of the sample interval affect memory for sample stimuli - Pigeons presented with sample for 1,4,8 or ii. Relationship 14 secs, followed by a delay of 0,20,40 or between sample and 60 secs. reinforcer - Results: memory increased as sample iii.Duration of sample exposure time increased iv. Length of delay - Longer presentation of sample, increases interval memory - Memory decreased as delay interval increased. - When delay interval decreases, memory increases. Procedural determinants of DMTS: Trace decay hypothesis: - Assumes that a stimulus creates a - Can explain Grant (1976) – look above „trace‟ in the nervous system that - BUT also find memory depends on the reflects the physical energy of the condition of training stimulus - This „trace‟ gradually decays at a Sargission & White (2001) constant rate - 4 groups of pigeons trained on DMTS - Oldest and simplest account of procedure with delays of either 0,2,4 or 6 memory (and memory loss) secs - Hypothesis assumes that - Tested with delays ranging from 0 to 10 presentation of a stimulus produces seconds changes in the nervous system that - Results: found each group did best when graduate dissipate or decay after the test delay was same as training 5 stimulus is turned off. - Suggests forgetting functions do not - No matter what the initial strength directly reflect the decay of memory of the trace, it is assumed to decay - Memory depends more on the similarity at the same rate after the stimulus between testing conditions and training ends. conditions - Extent to which the memory of an - Trace decay hypothesis is not happening event controls behaviour depends - There is a match between testing and on the strength of the stimulus trace training at that moment - Study for study - The longer the trace, the stronger - If you study under marijuana then you‟ll do the effect of the past stimulus on the best when under marijuana organisms behaviour. - Increasing the delay interval in the Matching-to-sample procedure reduces the accuracy of performance, presumably because the trace of the sample stimulus is weaker after longer delays. - Increasing the duration of exposure to the sample improves performance, presumably, because longer stimulus exposures establish stronger stimulus traces. - The delay interval used in training is just one training variable that If sample is red and green, they‟ll go for red one influences delayed matching to because they know its red. They know not to pick sample performance. green so they pick red - Matching is basically instrumental- choice behaviour motivated by the Wright & Sands (1981): reinforcer provided at the end of the - Specially-designed apparatus trial. - Found pigeons focused more on finding the correct alternative rather than avoiding the incorrect alternative - MTS is analogous to a discrimination problem in that the Response strategies in participant has to respond to the Matching-to-Sample: correct stimulus and refrain from responding to the incorrect one to - No matter what the sample is (polka dot, get reinforced. red, green) I‟m gonna pick the choice the same as that. - If the sample is red, then pick the red one. General VS. Specific rule - The rule may be “choose the choice learning stimulus which is the same as the sample i. General „same-as‟ - Trials-unique procedure: a different Test with new sample & comparison rule stimulus serves as the sample on - General „same-as‟ rule predicts correct each trial and is paired with responding here 6 another stimulus during the choice - Specific „if-then‟ rule predicts fall apart phase. (only occurs on the basis of here
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