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PS263 - Ch 5 Textbook.docx

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Todd Ferretti

Chapter 5 – Research Methods of Biopsychology 5.1 Methods of Visualizing & Stimulating the Living Human Brain  Contrast X-Rays: Involve injecting into one compartment of the body a substance that absorbs X-rays either less than or more than the surrounding tissue – heightens contrast between the compartment & surrounding tissue. o Cerebral Angiography- uses the infusion of a radio-opaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system.  X-Ray Computed Tomography: CT is a computer-assisted x-ray procedure that can be used to visualize the brain and other internal structures of the living body.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging: MRI is a procedure in which high-resolution images are constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio-frequency waves in magnetic field. o Spatial Resolution- the ability to detect and represent differences in spatial location (MRI has high spatial resolution)  Positron Emission Tomography: PET was the first brain imaging technique to provide images of brain activity rather than images of brain structure o I.e., radioactive deoxyglucose is injected into patients carotid artery  Functional MRI: fMRI produces images representing the increase in oxygen flow in the blood to active areas of the brain. Signal recorded is the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent).  Magnetoencephalography: MEG measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the scalp that are produced by changes in underlying patterns of neural activity – temporal resolution: can record fast changes in activity.  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: TMS is a technique for affecting the activity in an area of the cortex by creating a magnetic field under a coil positioned next to the skull. 5.2 Recording Human Psychological Activity  Scalp Electroencephalography: EEG is a measure of the gross electrical activity of the brain; it is recorded through large electrodes by a EEG machine. In humans it records from disk-shaped electrodes. o EEG waves accompany events and are called event-related potentials – sensory evoked potential; change in cortical EEG signal that is elicited by the momentary presentation of a sensory stimulus. o Signal Averaging: a method used to reduce the noise in the back. o Far-Field Potentials: small waves that originate far away from brain.  Muscle Tension: Electromyography is the usual procedure for measuring muscle tension; the record is an EMG – usually recorded with 2 electrodes taped to the surface of the skin. Muscles are composed of millions of fibers.  Eye Movement: Electrooculography is used to measure eye movement and records an EOG, based on the fact that there is a steady potential difference between the front (positive) and the back (negative) of the eyeball.  Skin Conductance: Skin Conductance Level (SCL): is a measure of the background level of skin conductance that is associated with a particular situation. Skin Conductance Response (SCR): is a measure of the transient changes in the skin conductance that is associated with discrete experiences. Chapter 5 – Research Methods of Biopsychology  Cardiovascular Activity: 2 parts – the blood vessels and the heart, system for distributing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body, removing metabolic wastes, and transmitting chemical activity.  Heart Rate: Electrical signal that is associated with each heartbeat can be recorded through electrodes placed on the chest. ECG or EKG  Blood Pressure: Measuring blood pressure with the measurement of the peak pressure during the periods of heart contraction – systoles, and a measurement of the minimum pressure during the relaxation – diastoles o Hypertension: chronic blood pressure of more than 140/90 mmHg  Blood Volume: Changes in the volume of blood in particular parts of the body are associated with psychological events. Plethysmography: refers to the various techniques for measuring changes in the volume of blood in body. 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods  Stereotaxic Surgery: The first step in many experiments – the means by which experimental devices are precisely positioned in the depths of the brain. Stereotaxic Atlas is used to locate brain structures in much the same way that a geographic atlas is used to locate geographic landmarks. Stereotaxic Instrument has a head and a holder, which firmly hold each subjects brain in the prescribed position and orientation.  Lesion Methods: * very hard to interpret * o Aspiration: When a lesion is to be made in an area of cortical tissue that is accessible to the eyes and instruments of the surgeon. o Radio-Frequency Lesions: passing radio freq. commonly makes small subcortical lesions current through the target tissue from the tip of a stereo taxically positioned electrode. o Knife Cuts: Sectioning is used to eliminate conduction in a nerve/tract. o Cryogenic Blockade: When coolant is pumped through the implanted cryoprobe, neurons near the tip are cooled until they stop firing. o Bilateral & Unilateral: Uni = restricted to half of the brain, Bi = both sides of the brain.  Electrical Stimulation: Usually delivered across the two tips of a bipolar electrode: two insulated wires wound tightly together and cut at the end.  Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods: o Intracellular Unit Recording: Provides a moment-by-moment record of the graded fluctuations in one neuron’s membrane potential. o Extracellular Unit Recording: Provides a record of the firing of a neuron but no info about the neuron’s membrane potential. o Multiple-Unit Recording: The electrode tip is much larger than that of a microelectrode; picks up signals from many neurons. o Invasive EEG Recording: Recorded through the large implanted electrodes rather than scalp electrodes. Chapter 5 – Research Methods of Biopsychology 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods  Routes of Drug Administration: 1) Fed to the subject, 2) Injected through a tube into the stomach, 3) Injected hypodermically into the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen, large muscle, fatty tissue beneath the sk
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