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Cerebrum I and II.docx

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Bruce Mc Kay

Cerebrum I and II Telencephalon – Cerebral Cortex  Gyri vs sulci o The ridges themselves are called the gyri (the bumps) and the sulci at the little invaginations (the trough)  Gyrenceohalic vs. Lissencephalic o Has folds in it = Gyrenceohalic  Six layered cortex o Has no folds = lissencephalic, a smooth brain with only one layer of cortex  Convolutions serve to increase surface area o Why not add an extra layer?  The adaptation is to keep the same body size, birthing size, skull size, and just fold the brain so that there can be more  Major fissures of the cerebral hemispheres and Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres o Have all of these lobes and all of these fissures dividing them o There are no functions of fissures, they just exist Studying Cerebral Function  History of observing these things are very barbaric because they occurred from serious accidents  Used to pack holes in heads with crocodile feces, crocodile feces have antibiotic properties  There was a phenominal invention that revolutionize the study of neural anatomy: The gun o Allowed you to put a small hole in the individuals head, destroying a little stuff and causing a very specific, very small damage. o Surgeons mapped out which part of the brain was affected and tested what damage had occurred. The visual field was actively affected as a result of the bullet entry and exit o Made a map of the visual cortex that provide to be right by imaging  Early anatomist noticed that depending on where you were in the brain, the cells had different shapes  Brodmann’s cytoarchitecture map as revealed by Golgi staining o Each area has different cell shapes that clustered together o Mapped based on golgi staining  Artificially activating neurons with a stimulating electrode evokes the behaviour normally sub served by those neurons  Stereotaxic Surgery o When the human skull forms, there are a lot of different bones associated with the skull that fuse as you get older. Where the skull fuses are joining points o Can use electrodes to test the different areas of the brain  Electrical Stimulation o Deep Brain stimulation  You take these stereotaxic brains and you puts electrodes into t
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