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Lecture 2

Week 2 - Drugs and Behaviour.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay
Semester
Fall

Description
Drugs and Behaviour - Week 2 Substance Abuse – DSM-IV-TR A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one or more of the following occurring at any time in same 12- month period: 1. Recurrent substance use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home 2. Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous 3. Recurrent substance-related legal problems 4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects Substance Dependence – DSM-IV-TR A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period: 1. Tolerance 2. Withdrawal 3. Substance often taken in larger amounts or over a period longer than intended 4. Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance us 5. A great deal of time is spent obtaining the substance 6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use 7. Substance use continues despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent problem that is caused or exacerbated by the substance Something on the list that you don’t see that you expect: (ex. How much do you have to drink to be an alcoholic – no answer, differs for each person – no amount specified, amount you consume is not important) OUTCOMES that matter not amount we consume Dependence Percentage of students in the last 12 months that may meet the DSM-IV criteria for ‘dependence’ – 1/6 – 16%, dependent – substance abuse, stable at 1/6 every year Substance vs. Drugs The DSM-IV uses the term ‘substance’ because many do not equate alcohol and nicotine with the term ‘drug’ *But what if you replaced the term substance with: Sex, Xbox, Gambling, Eating Are these unique, or fundamentally similar? Study, people can orgasm by hearing their favourite song, measure their brain and physiology, brain flooded with dopamine... dependency to music and sex that goes along with it Is dependence caused by the substance? -Wrong to conclude that any activity is by its nature always habit forming -When a chemical is seen as causing the dependence, there is a tendency to give that substance a personality to ascribe motives to it. What are the causes of dependence? IS it biological? – so far, no genetic, physiological, or biochemical marker has been found that strongly predicts drug dependence Does it depend on drug? Most addictive: heroin, cocaine, tobacco Intermediate: alcohol Least addictive: caffeine, marijuana, hallucinogens Does it depend on the route of administration? Most addictive: injecting, smoking Least addictive: swallowing Addictive Levels Crack cocaine = 10, Powder cocaine = 6 What causes substance dependence? IS it personality or family problem? Addictive Personality? -Correlation: ‘sensation seeking” and ‘impulsivity’ and early drug use Anxiety: self-medicate with alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, etc Personality disorders: 3% of normal males, 45% of males with substance abuse No addictive personality Family? Alcohol dependence often exists in dysfunctional families If you have a parent or close relative who is an alcoholic, your odds go way, way up But is it nature or nurture or some weighted combination of both? If you are closely related to a alcoholic (bro, sis, mom, dad, grandmother) … you probably shouldn’t drink alcohol, risk factors go up, especially if you are male and your father is an alcoholic –statistics strongly against them If you have ADHD and are homeless, meth makes feel better Drugs and the Law Society put these laws into place because there was an assumption long time ago that drugs are associated with crime Two general scenarios: Use DrugsCommit crime -changes in personality lead to crime (ex. Alcohol, PCP – potent, don’t feel pain, hard to stop someone on PCP) -illegal drug use is a crime itself Better Relationship Commit crimeTo use Drugs -Need money to buy drugs Association of violence with alcohol and other drugs Percentage of violence episodes associated with alcohol and other drugs Reported Spousal Abuse (up to 50%) Murders (49%) Drowning (69%) Assaults (62%) Rapes (52%) Traffic fatalities (50%) Chapter 3 Dealing with drug offenses: an overview of punishment of drug crimes Private Prisons – Canada, work for these companies, these companies put you on $1 assembly lines… sending people to jail is a business Drug Schedules-Canada -definitions more related to the legal outcomes of drug production, possession or distribution A brief primer on offences in Canada Summary conviction offence -less serious crimes -police must see you do it -maximum 6months in prison -maximum $5000 fine Indictable Offence -more serious crimes -police do not need to see you do it; must have warrants for arrests -6months in prison; $5000 fines Hybrid Offence – at the time the officer sees you the officer can charge you with a hybrid and the judge can decide later …these things can influence your ability to cross the border, special populations Which drugs are the most harmful (toxicity, dependence, social problems, etc)? Is there a relationship between how harmful the drugs are and the penalty. Schedule I ‘hard drugs’ Opium poppy derivates (opium, heroin, codeine, morphine, oxycodone, etc.) Coca and derivatives (coca leaves, cocaine) PCP, Ketamine, Fentanyls Methamphetamine Amphetamines (including MDA, excluding Methamphetamine) Not specified but inferred: MDMA, MDEA, MDBD Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) GHB Others New with C-10 Possession: -indicable offense – maximum 7 years in prison -summary conviction offense maximum $1000 fine for first offence and/or 6 months prison maximum $2000 fine for subsequent offence and/or max 1 year prison Trafficking – maximum life in prison Exportation – maximum life imprisonment Production – maximum life imprisonment 1kilo = minimum 1 year in prison Schedule II ‘cannabis’ Cannabis and derivatives Mj, cannabis resin, THC, hash, hashish, etc Excludes fibres derived from cannabis stalks (hemp) Schedule VII and VIII Schile VII 3kg hashish 3kg mj Schedule VIII 1 g hashish 30g mj MJ in a standard joint = .5gram If you have less than 30g, punishment is minimal, at 30g automatic penalty -difference between 29g and 30g, is a big deal, goes to the next level Schedule II Laws Possession: Traffiking: selling, life in prison Exportation: exporting it over the border, life in prison Production: growing, life in prison Texas said Canada is being to strict with their laws, with new bill C-10 Schedule II – Laws (new with Bill C-10) Production – number of plants: 5 or fewer: not specified, undefined what will happen to you 6-200 plants: Mandatory minimum = 6months 201-500: Mandatory minimum = 12months 500+: Mandatory minimum = 24 months +another Mandatory year if grown near school yards, on someone else’s property, in a residential area, booby traps were set, etc. Molson Plant in Barrie growing 30,000-40,000 plants Schedule III ‘medical sedatives, hallucinogens” Some Barbiturates (pentobarbital, secobarbital, etc) LSD, DMT Mescaline, but not Peyote Psilocybin Harmaline -drugs deemed not worth as much punishment Possession: 3 years in prison, if they find something that might show you intend to traffic, much more severe… ex. Scales, dime bags, Phone (used for trafficking) Trafficking: maximum 10years Exportation: maximum 10years Production: maximum 10years Canada – Schedule IV – Laws Possession: not clear Trafficking: max 3 years Exportation: max 3 years Production: max 3 years Canada – Schedule V ‘cold medication’ You cannot use this to make other stuff Possess, Trafficking, Production = not clear Exportation: max 3 years, like neocitrine, cold medication, etc …Trouble at border Canada – Schedule VI Precursors Class A Ephedrine (easily reduced into methamphetamine) Isoafrole Lysergic Pseudoephedrine Class B Acetone Ethyl Ether Hydrochloric acid Methyl ethyl ketone Sulfuric acid Possession, Trafficking, Production – not clear Exportat
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