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Lecture 3

Week 3 - Drugs and Behaviour (Alcohol).docx

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Bruce Mc Kay

PS268 – WEEK 3 ALCOHOL -clear winner as most popular drug in high school and university -second: MJ, third: MDMA A brief history of drinking -3700 BCE Egyptians brewed beer -very first year of a beer-like substance was used to preserve magic mushrooms – to use in ceremonies and rituals -1700 BCE started brewing wine – Babylonia -Middle Ages - started brewing beer – Italy -people who just drink beer have less problems than hard drinkers -when it started to become distilled it created big problems The history of alcohol 1750 – Gin epidemic in England Gin was one of the first beverages to be made from straight grain neutral spirits. By filtering the distillate through juniper berries and then diluting it with water, a medicinal tasting drink was made By the mid 1800s, Americans drank more alcohol than any other beverage (including water) Average: about 5 drinks per day 1800s- Temperance movement (ex. Women’s Christian Temperance Union) -Everyone should avoid distilled spirits entirely, because they were considered to be toxic, and should consume beer and wine in a temperate, or moderate manner. 1864 – Dunkin Act – any county may forbid the sale alcohol by majority vote 1898 – Federal referendum – 51.3% in favour of prohibition (note Quebec: 18.9% in favour); Prime Minister WL does NOT introduce referendum as a federal bill PEI Prohibition 1900-1948 Prohibition in Alberta, Saskatchewan 1916-1924 (proved unenforceable) Prohibition in Ontario 1916-1927 (at end created LCBO) Prohibition in Quebec 1919 Why did Prohibition end? -government makes lots of money off it, if government isn’t making it, organized crime is AND IN HUGE AMOUNTS -anything you can make or grow on your own, hard to enforce -most people wanted to drink, difficult to say to society, you can’t do it -public outcry -massive loss in tax revenue Problem with graph – restricted range - visual looks a lot larger than it is Moderate weekly ethanol consumption according to health Canada for a male = 14 is moderation, 11/12 for female Alcohol Consumption is very stable in Laurier, year after year MDMA has gone straight up 90% drink once a month, 85% was predicted -any other prediction and actual data for drugs is not near Three basic categories of alcoholic beverages Beer - approximately 4.5 percent alcohol Wine - approximately 12-14 percent alcohol Distilled spirits (liquor) - approximately 40 to 50 percent alcohol Fermentation: Making wine Organic material with sugar content (honey, grapes, berries, molasses, rye, apples, corn, sugar cane, rice, dandelions, etc) + yeast Ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide (max 12 to 14%) C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 Malt = germinated and then kiln-dried grain Grist = crushed grain kernels Why can’t yeast go over 14/15%, yeast tends to die Beer – you still have to add yeast (has a wine step- for alcohol) Making Liquor: Distillation Distallation: a physical process by which chemicals are separated on the basis of differences in their boiling points. In the process of making liquor, fermented liquids are boiled and then cooled to produce a higher alcohol content. -ethanol goes lower, Alcohol content = proof Old British army custom: Pour a solution of alcohol and water on gunpowder. If solution <50% alcohol, gunpowder cannot be ignited If solution >50% alcohol, gunpowder .6 oz of alcohol equals one drink Alcoholic beverages and alcohol equivalencies 1 five-ounce glass of wine = 5 oz x 0.12 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce beer = 12 oz x 0.045 = 0.54 oz alcohol 1 1.5-ounce shot of 80-proof liquor = 1.5 oz x 0.40 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce bottle of wine cooler = 12 oz x 0.05 = 0.60 oz alcohol (1 pint = 16 oz, therefore 1 pint of beer = 1.3 beers) How much are people drinking? France – drink more often and less amounts, we drink less in big amounts When is average an okay number to represent population? -normal distribution -not reasonable to say ‘average’ -average person drinks 8litres of ethanol per year, not good because there are some people who don’t drink ever and some who drink all the time Budweiser = 100million kegs (20% of people are drinking 60% of that) Binge Drinking Women 4 drinks or more in a row Men 5 drinks or more in a row OR -or if you are smashed all weekend and it interferes with other activities An extended bout of drinking or other substance use (often lasting at least two days) in which the person neglects other activities in order to engage in this behaviour Laurier data – almost always, or always -4/5 drinks, or goal to get intoxicated -not specific to university, but more common “Binge” drinking in university students Preferred terms: “heavy episodic drinking” or “episodic high-risk drinking” Student binge drinking patterns: • Typically restricted to once per week or once per month and primarily on weekends • Cyclical – heaviest earlier in semester and then again following exams; peaks for football weekends, reading week, etc • Living within the university environment is key – behaviour pattern ends for most students when they graduate Perception of themselves – not binge drinkers, perception of uni. Students – binge drinkers Binge drinking is not something that goes away when you leave uni. It persists over lifespan. harm reduction – how can we give people tools to stay alive if they pass out in middle of drinking they have too much alcohol in brain, and alcohol still in belly. Alcohol from belly builds up more in brain. 50% of university students participate in binge drinking games The risk of reaching lethal doses of alcohol is very real in drinking games. The huge concentration of alcohol in the stomach continues to be absorbed even when unconscious DO NOT let friends “sleep it off” if they’ve been participating in a drinking game If they pass out, roll them onto their side and DO NOT leave them alone – seek medical help When should you call 911? Important factors: breathing rate (normal vs. shallow vs. irregular) heart rate / pulse (normal vs. elevated vs. faint) skin colour (normal vs. bluish) mental state / behaviour (normal vs. altered) consciousness (passed out (sleeping) vs. unconscious) Problem – most of these are highly subjective without medical training Passed out vs. unconscious can be assessed relatively non-subjectively “Passing out (sleeping)” vs. “unconsciousness” 3 steps you must follow: 1. Someone stays with them at all times 2. Regularly ASK them QUESTIONS and GIVE them ORDERS - name? - open your eyes - quiz them - ask them to move a body part - etc If necessary, test for PAIN – squeeze
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