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Lecture 4

Week 4 - Drugs and Behaviour.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Week 4 – Tobacco Cigars – real men smoked cigars Cigarettes – college 1964 – First surgeon general‘s report on smoking – smoking‘s bad for you Anti smoking messages followed 1994 – US testimony – tobacco is not addictive, argument was under oath -argument - correlation, not causation -from definitions of dependency – how could you argue that tobacco doesn‘t cause dependency? There are no physical withdrawal symptoms. 1. tolerance 2. withdrawal 3. substance often taken in larger amounts or over a period longer than intended 4. persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use 5. A great deal of time is spent in obtaining the substance 1997 – Canadian Tobacco Act Advertisements Tobacco companies may: Only promote their products in publications delivered directly to an adult or in places where young people aren‘t permitted by law, such as bars or taverns. Only highlight actual brand characteristics, rather than by "lifestyle" advertising that attempts to portray the product to consumers in a flattering light. Advertisements Tobacco companies may NOT: Attempt to convince young people of the desirability of their product by associating it with glamour, recreation, excitement, vitality, risk, daring, or sexuality. Depict any tobacco product, or its package or brand — or even any imagery that might evoke a product or brand. Sponsor youth-oriented activities or events. Include the name of a tobacco product or manufacturer as part of the name of a permanent sports or cultural facility. Sponsorship Events (e.g., sporting) supported by the tobacco industry before April 1997 could continue receiving such support for the five-year transition period. By the end of the five-year transition period (October 2003), tobacco sponsorship promotions and the display of tobacco brand elements in or on permanent facilities would be prohibited altogether. Retail Promotions Retailers are permitted to display branded tobacco products and accessories, as well as signs that indicate the availability of tobacco products and their prices. Tobacco in Movies Movies may show smoking acts, but tobacco companies cannot pay for the inclusion of such material. 2000 – All tobacco products must have warning messages covering 50% of their display space (only in Canada and a few other countries, not US) 2011 – 75% of the display space must be warnings 2006 – Smoke-Free Ontario Act Prohibits smoking in all enclosed public places and workplaces in Ontario effective May 31, 2006 Ensures the minimum age to purchase cigarettes is 19 (retailer must verify age if patron appears under 25) Phases out the retail display of tobacco products (with a complete ban of all tobacco product displays effective May 1, 2008) --Australia packaging – deep brown, light ink, cannot read labels -E-CGIARETTES – VAPOURIZE NICOTINE WITHOUT THE TAR OR CARNBON MONOXIDE; BUT GET DIETHYLENE GLYCOL INSTEAD (ANTI FREEZE) -Hookahs – large, ornate water pipes imported from Arab countries; produce milder, water- filtered tobacco smoke Effect of Cigarette Tax? -not much, slope of the line is same, already going down, had no effect of cigarette smoking, went on top of a very popular trend that was already happening (decline of cigarette smoking) Who Smokes? Canadians are not big smokers Smoking happens ¼ people in North America Rates of smoking in some countries is huge (China – males especially) Smoking is okay because there is minimal educational campaigns If you have massive cig. Companies and you sell them When does smoking start? -Fairly early in life -If you haven‘t done the drug by 19/20, likelihood of doing it is not high. Possible, but peak years are 17/18 Are the negative health effects of cigarettes widely known, and if so, why do people start smoking in the first place? -Is it the right thing to do to educating kids about smoking? -what could happen is not powerful (mostly useless), have to give them the hear and now, MYOPIA VIEW, kid brother/sister, what should you tell them? -Smoking will decrease lung capacity – athletic ability -Physical Appearance, your teeth will go yellow, bad breath Money you spend on smoking $$ Why does smoking start? For teenagers: Establish feelings of independence and maturity (defy parental wishes) Improving self image, enhancing social acceptance Counter act stress or boredom Simple curiosity Who Smokes: Canadian Data -not much of a gender component, men smoke more than women but not big difference -strikingly noticeable with the amount of education someone has and how much they smoke -No HS – lots of smoking, HS diploma – some, College diploma – a little lower, etc -Why is there such a difference in education? Everyone has been exposed to the fact that smoking is bad, so what is it about education that decreases smoking? delay of gratification (marshmallows) – people who seek educations are more future oriented -certain vocations where only smokers go on break, contagious to smoke -many different reasons Laurier Data Reality 7% Estimate 35% Crowd that smokes at the same rate they drink The most important toxic compounds in tobacco smoke (Carbon Monoxide) - CO -an odorless, colourless, tasteless toxic gas -attaches itself to hemoglobin better than oxygen -Produces a slow asphyxiation of the body -a cause of cardiovascular diseases The most important toxic compounds in tobacco smoke – TAR -sticky, adheres to cells in the lungs and airways -impairs ciliary escalator -permits carcinogenic compounds to settle on pulmonary tissue; origin of metastatic cancers -TRACHEA tube that connects airway to lungs, cilia, when you breathe in something cilia breathes it in and sweeps it out. Tars bind to the cilia and destroys them. SO now nothing can sweep out the particles, they then go to alveoli sacs in the lungs which creates cancer. Once in the lungs it goes into the blood stream, gets stuck somewhere else, Metastatic Cancer. -MJ smoke contains same basic tar and CO chemicals, but it does contain chemicals that you breathe in that help prevent cancers The most important toxic compounds in tobacco smoke NICOTINE -toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug found exclusively in tobacco -stimulus CNS receptors (nicotinic) sensitive to acetylcholine -release adrenaline -inhibits activity in the GI tract -passes blood brain and blood placental barrier in about 5-8sec -widely used as an insecticide -double glove before going near a bottle of nicotine -Nicotine makes effects of other drugs more powerful There are some other things in tobacco that What government uses Polonium? -cooked from inside out DO filtered cigarettes have fewer toxins? Filtered cigs have a filter to remove toxins; the filter also decreases the tar (flavour) for the user To compensate, cigarette manufacturers increased the tar in their cigarettes, effectively negating the purpose of the filter The smoke passively inhaled by a non smoker is thus more toxic from a filtered cigarette Are hookahs safer? Tobacco is placed inside the head, where it is commonly covered by tinfoil and coal is placed on top to burn the tobacco The added coal contributes to a number of added toxins to the tobacco Water is placed in the bottom portion of the hookah where it is believed to capture toxic waste before inhalation Sessions tend to last up to 20-25 minutes with a person puffing between 50-100times ( a cigarette smoker on average smokes for 5-7mins puffing between 10-20puffs) A single water pipe session results in the same carbon monoxide and tar intake
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