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Week 10 - drugs.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Week Ten – Performance Enhancing Drugs You want to win an Olympic medal, so you train very, very hard But while you‟re training, you see people doing things on the side to improve their performance: they -get a personal trainer/coach go to summer sport camps eat all the best foods train at the most up to date gym moved to another city (or even country) take all the right supplements But you can‟t, because… -no extra money -logistics -your genes suck -etc So those who can do these things – are they getting an unfair advantage? ----only wealthiest can figure skate --you‟ve got the best coaches, attend all the right camps, eat the best food, have the best gym membership etc --But while you‟re training, you see people doing things on the side to improve their performance – they take steroids But you can‟t, because… Steroids are cheating So those who use steroids – are they getting an unfair advantage? Two questions asked to aspiring Olympians: If you were offered a banned performance-enhancing substance that guaranteed that you would win an Olympic medal and you would not get caught, would yyou take it? Laurier - 25% High level athlete 195/198 said Yes Sports and Drugs Goldman study (1994) Two questions asked to aspiring Olympians: Question #2: “Would you take a banned performance-enhancing drug with a guarantee that you will not be caught, you will win every competition for the next 5 years, but will then die from adverse effects of the substance?” 50% said yes Mark McGwire – before and after -1998 70 home runs MLB record Barry Bonds – before and after BALCO 2001 73 home runs MLB record -put on weight -increased hat size by two sizes -testicles shrunk Arnold Schwarzenegger steroids Football Players Lyle Alzado Shawne Merriman Highlights from the history of drug use in sports 1950s Russian weightlifters begin to markedly outperform their US counterparts Later 1950s US Olympic physician teams with chemists to create Dianabol 1956 Steroid use becomes the norm in modern Olympic Games steroids dubbed “the breakfast of champions” 1960s Steroid use banned by the IOC – but no testing The fastest men on Earth, ever. 100 metre sprint times under 9.80 seconds: 1988 – Ben Johnson confirmed steroids 9.79 seconds 1999 – Maurice Greene 9.79 seconds clean but… admitted to buying steroids (for fellow athletes) his couach was part of the BALCO scandal 2002 – Tim Montgomery confirmed steroids 9.78 seconds 2006 – Justin Gatlin confirmed steroids 9.77 seconds 2007 – Asafa Powell clean 9.74 seconds 2009 – Usain Bolt clean 9.58 seconds LAURIER STEROIDS Perception 10% <<1% Anabolic-androgenic steroids Androgenic acting to promote masculinizing changes in the body -more facial hair, deeper voice, more manlier Anabolic acting to promote growth and muscular development -tissue growth, BIGGER Anabolic-androgenic steroids a group of drugs patterned after the testosterone molecule, producing anabolic and androgenic effects Anabolic steroids a shortened name for anabolic-androgenic steroids Steroids Physical effects of natural testosterone Androgenic effects (masculinzing) -growth of penis (no scientific evidence) average adult length = 13.3cm, SD = 1.7 cm (about 5 inches) -deepening of the voice -increased facial hair Anabolic effects tissue building -increased protein synthesis -increased muscle mass -control of the distribution of body fat -increased calcium in the bones Routes of administration for anabolic steroids Oral – comes out of body a few weeks Intramuscular (i.m.) injection – lasts several months, half a year  if competing in something, off season, intramuscular, oral during season and wean themselves off Legitimate medical uses of steroids Weight gain in the malnourished or sick Promotes recovery from muscle injury Stimulates growth spurts in children with pituitary problems Source of testosterone in males with testicular cancer According to the textbooks... Do steroids improve athletic performance? Mixed and controversial research findings -Testosterone builds muscle mass and strength during puberty -Animal studies: Synthetic anabolic steroids build muscle in castrated animals -Unclear if giving additional anabolic steroids to adolescent or adult males who already have normal circulating levels of testosterone will have a significant effect -Laboratory research on healthy men Steroids can produce small increases in lean muscle mass and sometimes small increases in muscular strength Research findings do not match word-of-mouth --scientific literature has a different view: significant effect? 10 weeks of resistance training and testosterone supplementation increases maximal bench press (recreational weightlifters) Paper begins with the statement: “Athletes often take androgenic steroids in an attempt to increase their strength. The efficacy of these substances for this purpose is unsubstantiated, however.” • Testosterone 600 mg/wk • at this dose no change in mood/behaviour steroids can make you bigger and stronger without weight lifting, sitting on couch, doing steroids, bench pressing goes up 10kg people expect hundreds of kilo increase What do you suppose is wrong with every one of these „laboratory‟ studies? HINT: What would you conclude about the behavioural effects of alcohol if all of your subjects were told to drink one cap-full of beer? --beer had no effect -if you look at the amount given in studies vs. actual dose of users, very different ANSWER: They use „medically safe‟ doses of steroids Studies report athlete steroid use at 2-200x the medical dose They are not given to real athletes Pharmacogenomics working with different genetic background Psychological Side-Effects Steroids produce a stimulant-like high and increased aggressiveness - May allow more work done during training and increased intensity of effort during competition Risks, especially at high doses - Psychological dependence, resulting in mood swings and depression when users don‟t take the drugs - “Roid rage”: Stories may be exaggerated, but the number of reports of violent feelings and actions among steroid users is a key area of concern (~20% experience this) - More likely related to lowering the threshold to produce an aggressive behaviour, rather than causing aggression per se looked at as a problem because of the things these people do … Keep in mind, these people are strong and that‟s why  “turn on power” with serious brain injury = bizarre behaviour, nothing to do with steroids  combination of a lot of things, that are just being interpreted as „Roid Rage‟ Wasn‟t the steroids, brain injuries Anabolic steroid side-effects in men Shrunken testicles Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia) increasing Estrogen levels as well Acne on shoulders and back Increased facial hair, accelerated balding Liver tumours High blood pressure, heart abnormalities (maybe) -spontaneous nose bleeds Anabolic steroid side-effects in women Irreversible: Lower voice Increased facial + body hair Increased loss of scalp hair Enlarged clitoris Reversible: Increased aggressiveness Diminished menstruation Increased sex drive C
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