Tuesday October 23 2012d
Obedience (Milgram’s studies)
- The Eichmann experiments
- 18 experiments
- Subject (teacher) reads pairs of words
• Blue box
• Nice day
• Wild duck
- In testing sequence,
- Subjects read: …
- Shock levels
• Level 1 (15 colts)...... Level 30 (450 volts)
- :obedience”= delivering max shock level
- 2 outcomes reported: obedience, level administered
- Prods #1: please continue
- Prods #2: the experiment requires you to continue
- Prod #4: you have no other choice, you must go on
- What do you think?
• Which number is most accurate measure of obedience? • How would you define obedience
• Why did people obey- was it mindless obedience?
• Why didn’t some people obey?
- Most reported findings: 65% obeyed (multiple choice question answer)
Why did participants obey?
- Binding factors (don’t want to ruin the experiment ect…)
- Adjustments in thinking
- Unfamiliar situation
- Transfer of responsibility
- Gradual, incremental nature
- Become immersed in the procedures
Factors affecting obedience
1. Institutional prestige
2. Proximity of victim (learner)
3. Proximity of the authority figure
4. Legitimacy of the authority figure
5. Models of disobedience
So milgram’s studies explain the Holocaust?
- What do you think? Yes or no?
- What is the underlying assumption?
• Study participants were similar to Nazi…
• Milgram says YES
- “I was just following orders” people were influenced by the factors affecting obedience to
authority – it was not hatred of the Jews…
- No preconceived notions toward “learner” - Nazis hated jews
- Holocaust let people do what they wanted to do anyway
What do classic studies contribute to our understanding of inhuman social behaviour?
- Asch: people conform even with strangers
- Milgram: authority figure is an important presence in peoples decision making
(QUESTION ON EXAM ABOUT HOW THESE STUDIES CONTIBUTE TO HOW THE
Consider how social media affects social interaction
- Norm formation
- Informational influence
- Normative influence
- Distance from victim
4. Minority influence
- 3 volunteers
1. Function of a group?
What is a group?
- 2 or more people - Are interacting
- Are independent
Why join a group?
- Part of our identity
- Role in motivating people to become involved in social change
- Groups help to establish social norms
- Groups establish well-defined social roles
- Self of belonging
Group cohesiveness: qualities of the group that bind members together and promote liking
between members (people are more concerned with keeping cohesiveness that they pick
2. Influence of a group on behaviour and performance
1- physiological arousal
2- Social lofting
• Psychological arousal: why?
- Mere presence
- Evaluation apprehension
• Dominant response
• Arousal enhances simple, dominant responses
• But interferes with complex responses
• Presence of others can help performance (Cockroaches…)
• Antecedents: - GROUPS
- ANONYMITY (UNIFORMS)
- Feel less accountable
- Become l