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Lecture 3

PS283 Week 3 Lecture notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alexandra Gottardo

Monday September 24 2012 th Week 3: Lecture 7 Vygotsky Language mediates thought: word meanings and categories determined by adults Development of concepts: - Give label to each new object (they think that the label and the object are the same thing) - Initially word and object inseparable • Focus attention • Select distinctive features Scaffolding - Structured support to insure success (assisted learning) - Slowly reduce level of support - Ex. (a picture) (words) (list of steps) (hand over hand) - How would you teach a child a specific task using scaffolding? (when they trace lines on paper to learn to write letters - What kind of public speech would help the child internalize the instructions? (explain to them that they must write on the lines) Zone of proximal development - Distance between child’s developmental level and potential ability - Implications for assessment? Language vs. speech Language - Rule-based symbol system (doesn’t have to be oral language. Could be written, sign) - Productive Speech - One way to represent language (the way they say words and sounds) - Auditory/ articulatory Receptive vs. expressive Receptive language - What the child understands - Measure comprehension Expressive language - What the child produces correctly - Test by observing child’s utterances Language structures Types of language structures - Rules for organizing language 1) Syntax : rules for combining words into sentences/ phrases 2) Morphology: categories and rules for word formation (open class words, close class words) *morphemes: minimal meaning-bearing units 3) Semantics: meaning of words * Connectionist networks: - Semantic features/ facts related to meaning - equate meaning with abstract concept - represent similarities and differences between words - organize words into natural classes Wednesday September 26 2012 th Week 3 Lecture 8 *no need to memorize the things on the brain Language c
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