Nov 27 th 11/29/2012
- Prejudice Gone Underground
o Overt (blatant) discrimination has declined
Modern racism a subtle form of prejudice that surface in less direct ways whenever it is safe or
o Dual attitude system
Explicit (conscious) attitudes
Implicit (automatic) attitudes
- Consequences of Prejudice
o Selfperpetuating stereotypes
We dismiss behaviours that don’t support the stereotype sp that the stereotype is
• Subtyping: Splitting the stereotype to make a special case. Recognised as an
exception to the group
Subgrouping: Creating a new stereotype. Acknowledging as part of the overall
o SelfFulfilling Prophecy
Stereotype threat -
- Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
o Learning Not to Hate
Adults teaching children
Children teaching peers.
Of automatic use of schemas
Of prejudice use of language
o The Contact Hypothesis (Allport)
Repeated exposure to members of outgroup
Not just mere contact
• 6 Key conditions must be met:
o 1. Equal status
o 2. Mutual interdependence
o 3. Common goal
o 4. Contact must take place in a friendly, informal setting that allows for
o 5. Interaction must be with multiple members of outgroup
6. Social norms must promote equality • E.g., Sherif et al. (1961) Boys Camp Study.
o The Extended Context Hypothesis (Wright)
“there mere knowledge that a member of one’s own group has a close relationship with a
member of another group can reduce one’s prejudice toward that group” (Aronson et al.,
The greater the number of people in your group who have friendships with outgroup
members, the less prejudiced you are toward that group.
o The Jigsaw Classroom ( Aronson et al.)
Goals: To reduce prejudice. Raise self esteem
How: Small desegregated ‘expert’ groups. Makes each child dependent on the other
children in his or her group to learn the course material.
Results: Compared to traditional classrooms, students in the jigsaw groups showed
• Decrease in prejudice and stereotyping
• Increase in likening for group mates within and across ethnic boundaries.
• Performed better on objective exams
• Liked school more
• Showed significantly greater increase in selfesteem.
Heterogeneity is to the ingroup as Homogeneity is to the outgroup.
- Attraction and Intimacy - Friendship and Attraction
- Factors that lead to friendship and attraction
- The Need to Belong
o Motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
- Proximity ( The Propinquity Effect)
o The more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
o This relies on
Actual physical distance
Functional distance, how likely your paths will cross. Certain aspects of architectural
design that make it likely that some people will come into contact…?
Why? More opportunity for interaction. Anticipation of interaction. Mere exposure effect.
- Similarity vs Complementarity
o Do birds of a feather flock together or do opposites attract?
Birds of a feather flock together
Dissimilarity breeds dislike
Likeness begets likening.
- Similarity o
Why is similarity so important in attraction?
We assume that similar people will like us
o Similar people provide validation for us (satisfies our nee to be right)
- Reciprocal Liking
o Liking those who like us
Can trump similarity
o Self fulfilling prophecy
Curtis and miller 1986
o Low self esteem.
- External Barriers
Romeo and Juliet effect, greater parental interference associated with more love (esp. for
- Physical Attractiveness
o A major determinant in studies of first impressions
o What is beautiful?
Cultural standards of beauty
o “What is beautiful is good” Especially for social competence
- Relationship Rewards
o Reward theory of attraction
Relationships continue if they give us more rewards than costs
We like those we associate with good feelings.
- Misattribution of Arousal
o Arousal us a central part of Passionate love
o Two factor theory of emotion (Schacter)
Emotion=arousal + Belief (label)
o Two factor theory of love (Hatfield and Berscheid)
Love = Arousal + Belief its due to a person.
- Close Intimate Relationships
- What is love?
o Feelings of intimacy, attachment and passion that is distinct from likening.
o 2 kinds of love:
Companionate love: feelings of intimacy and affection Passionate love: intense longing