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Lecture 6

PS 271 Personality Week 6 Day 1.docx

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Kathy Foxall

PS 271 Personality Week 6 Day 1 Monday February 10, 2014 Twins as a Source of Data • Comparing identical twins to fraternal twins makes it possible to detect genetic influences on personality – to a point • Minnesota Twin Study o Found a lot of similarities with them but there was also differences Twins as a Source of Data • Still unclear how much of the similarity is genetically pre-programmed and how much is due to the shared and nonshared environment o Raised together would be similar living conditions but be treated differently, also an issue with outside environment (school) o Some twins try to separate themselves from their twin Identical twins are not identical • Monozygotic twins have copy number variants • differences in the number of copies of a gene at some locations o Can occur without a diagnosable disease o No identical twins are identical in their genes (when child) o Genes change over time with experience • typically we have two copies of each gene, but there are some genes for which we can have 0-14 copies Epigenetic effects • determine how genes are expressed • Change through experience Epigenetic effects • One twin can get more blood from the ambilical cord • Can share membrane cell in the mother o Higher risk of birth defects • If they share a placenta or have one of their own o Blood supply travel and remove toxins o Their own then they are affected with different toxins depending on how well their placenta is Video: Reunited twins - Dr. Nancy Segal • Twin studies are very insiteful • Nancy is a twin herself • Interviewed twins that had been seperated for over 35 years o The one was abducted when they were little o Have same fear o Genes have a large impact o Bond was instant and intense • We like what is like us and no two people are more alike like identical twins Video: Epigentic factors • Cory and Eric o Twins but Cory is much smaller than Eric o Regularily weighted, height, and IQ test is taken o Cory's IQ raised quickly and now they are at the same level of IQ • One twin gets more nutrition while in the womb • Intelligence is in the genes • Young children need exposure (very stimulating environment) • Everyone has an IQ range Family and twin studies of correlations in intelligence MZ together .86 MZ apart .76 DZ together .55 DZ apart .35 Siblings tog .47 Sibs apart .24 (big difference) Non bio sibs .29 • Physical appearance plays an effect (teachers treat better looking children better, parents are more careful with better looking children) What puts a child at risk for mental health disorders and criminality? • interaction of genes and environment • if adopted by families with mental health issues, children with biological parents with mental health issues or criminal backgrounds were at high risk o Adopted parents go through a very extensive screening o Risk is reduced if raised by parents without the history then having biological parents with the history but still higher then a biological family without the history Environmental factors that affect intelligence • prenatal exposure to toxins…tobacco, alcohol, infections, pollutants • malnutrition 20 points gap well nourished and malnourished in intelligence • postnatal exposure to toxins such as lead after birth • Having serious problems in the family
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