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Lecture 3

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Rebekah Rempel

PS275 - Week 2 Lecture 3 9/16/2013 2:31:00 PM G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)  Founder of “child study movement”  Gathered extensive data on all aspects of development  Structured, systematic Normative Approach to Child Study:  Take measures on large number of children  Determine averages for each age level  Indicates the typical or average development of the behavior Research in Developmental Psychology King Psamtik  Hypothesis – If children had no opportunity to learn language around them, they would automatically speak the language of the first language of human kind or people (most ancient race “Egyptian”)  Proof that Egyptians were the most ancient race  2 infants  Infants kept in separate cottages, properly fed but not to here anyone speak  Infants spoke “Frigian” before Egyptian, coming to a conclusion that the Frigians were a more ancient race  *First developmental experiment in recorded history Scientific Method  Formulating theories  Developing hypothesis (specific testable predictions)  Testing them Ways of Collecting Data  Observe people in real-life situations  Test people in controlled, contrived situations  Give written tests  Questionnaires or interviews 3 Most Common Research Methods:  Naturalistic Observations  Correlations  Experiments Naturalistic Observations:  Observe children in their natural environments (home, school, playground)  Observe & record behavior without trying to control or change it  One of the most commonly used research methods in child psychology  Example: o Pepler & Craig (1995, Toronto) o Children’s aggressive behaviors (playground) o Watch and listen without being seen and without interfering o Observed and recorded very subtle forms of aggression  Goal is to see the “real” every-day behaviors  Ecologically Valid  Participant Observation: o Observer purposely becomes part of the group to make observations (part of ethnography) o Goal is to get an “insiders view” o Data is very rich and very complex o Example:  Sibylle Artz (1998)  Violent girls in Victoria, BC  In-depth look at girls’ perceptions of self & behaviors, contributing factors, etc. Correlations:  Look for relationships between variables  No control/manipulation of variables o Therefore, impossible to determine whether 1 variable CAUSES the other  Only shows whether or not variable are RELATED Experiments:  To determine causes  Create identical situations (& randomly assign)  Systematically change some variables (independent variables)  Observe the resulting behaviors (dependent variables)  All of the conditions must be identical except for the variable(s) being manipulated o Otherwise, differences could be the result of:  Confounds – Other uncontrolled things that might cause the results  Controlling all confounds leads to experiments so artificial, they don’t resemble the real world Why Use Other Methods?  Many topics can’t be studied through experiments  Some variables just cant be manipulated  Sometimes you can’t control the conditions (i.e. the different groups) *Developmental Rese
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