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Lecture

September 16th Lecture.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS275
Professor
Diane Glebe
Semester
Fall

Description
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) - Founder of “child study movement” - Gathered extensive data on all aspects of development - Structured, systematic Normative approach to child study - Take measures on a large number of children - Determine averages for each age level - Indicated the typical or average development of that behaviour Week 2 Research in Developmental Psychology King Psamtik (Egypt 7 century BC)  Hypothesis: if children have no opportunities to learn language, what is first spoken would be the language of the most ancient language - >Egyptian  2 Infants in different cottage, never hear anyone speak ->say bread in Frisian-> different race than Egyptian  The first developmental experiment in recorded history Scientific method - Formulating theories - Developing hypotheses, specific testable predictions - Testing them - Observe people in real-life situations - Test people in controlled contrived situations - Give written tests - Questionnaires or interviews 3 most commonly used methods - Naturalistic observations - Correlations - Experiments Naturalistic Observations - Observe children in their natural environments (home, school, playground) - Observe & record behaviour without trying to control or change it - One of the most commonly used research methods in child psychology - Must not affect children’s behaviour - Goal is to see the real every-day behaviours - Ecologically valid Example: Pepler & Craig (1995, Toronto) - children’s aggressive behaviours in playground, watch and listen without being seen and without interfering - Observed/recorded very subtle forms of aggression Participant Observation - Observer purposely becomes “part of the group” to make observations (part of ethnography) - Goal is to get an “insider’s view” - Data is very rich an very complex Example: Sibylle Artz (1998) - spend time with 6 violent girls in Victoria, BC - in-depth look at girls’ perceptions of self & behaviors, contributing factors, etc Correlations - look for relationships (associations) between variables - no control/manipulation of variable (impossible to determine whether 1 variable causes the other) Experiments - Determine causes - 1. Create identical situations (randomly assign) - 2. Systematically change some variables (independent variables) - 3. Observe the resulting behaviours (dependent variables) - All conditions must be identical EXCEPT for the variables being manipulated, otherwise, differences could be the result of confounds (other uncontrolled things that might cause the results) - Controlling all confounds leads to experiments so artificial, they don’t resemble the real world. Why use other methods? - Many topics can’t be studied through experiments - Some variables just can’t be manipulated - Sometimes you can’t control the conditions (the different groups) Studying Age-assoc
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