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Developmental Psychology Notes.docx

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Diane Glebe

Intro To/Theories Of Development Distinguishing the differences between certain stages in life, infancy, childhood, adolescence etc. Age Periods  Prenatal (conception to birth)  Infancy and toddlerhood (birth – 2 yrs)  Early childhood (2-6 yrs)  Middle childhood (6-11 yrs)  Adolescence (11-20 yrs) Adolescence marks the transition between childhood and adulthood We will look at the first four for the purposes of this class so do not read sections on teens and adolescence in the text Development marks the changes in structure of thoughts or behaviours from environmental and biological influences 3 Domains of Development  Physical (biological) o changes in the outside of the body as well as internal changes like hormones and glands anything really o changes in motor development o athletic abilities o etc.  Cognitive o all mental abilities and activities related to thinking and problem solving o perception, reasoning, memory, creativity, language  Social/Emotional o personality, interpersonal skills, emotions, self-concept, social skills, our reactions and behaviours to things  All of these domains interact with each other in interesting ways, for example you may have developed the ability to hold a pencil and draw, but until you learn a certain symbol cognitively you won‘t know to do so Holistic nature of Development  interdependent, integrative A segmented or modular approach would be to isolate one of the three interconnected domains and study it specifically Theory  ―Orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behaviour.‖  Theories help us: o organize large amounts of data o formulate relevant questions o focus research o put individual findings into broader framework o gain greater insight as they evolve o make better predictions o Our beliefs as to why things happen will influence the way we develop theories, we need to be open minded! Controversial Areas in Theory  Nature vs. Nurture o Which factors influence development? Heredity vs. environment  Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuous- development is a gradual process with small changes in amount quantitative change  ―more of the same‖  Ex. A small seed turning slowly into a larger tree very gradual o Discontinuous- development involves qualitative change  ―completely different‖  Clearly defined stages  Ex. A Caterpillar into a butterfly  Active vs. Passive development o Active- humans are active participants in their own development  Learn from experiences and can act on them to further our own development o Passive- humans are passive recipients of events  React/respond to internal drives and motivations Historical Foundations (Medieval Europe 6 -15 th thcenturies)  Preformationism o Children were viewed as fully formed, miniature adults o Arrived preformed in the adult mold o This is seen in old art and sculptures that depicted kids and mini little adults o By age 12 most kids were carrying out full adult responsibilities o Children that were infants to age 5 were treated a little different, but by age 6 or 7 that‘s it they‘re adults! o For centuries scientists believed that mini little people preformed at conception  Evidence for this was not facts, only based on the belief that you just couldn‘t see it as it was much too small to see before birth. And once you COULD see it, it was a human being! o It was easy for children to work with adults in things like farming and minor physical labour o As 1500 hit and the work world started to get more complicated such as new technologies like the printing press, reading writing, math, banking etc. o This brought about the need of schools to be able to train children to get these better jobs, thus leading parents to be less willing to send their kids off to work Theories Of Childhood Development Intro Controversial Issues in Developmental Theories  Nature vs. nurture o change in behavior is bio/genetic, or experience/learning  Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuous  development is GRADUAL with small changes in AMOUNT  ―more of the same‖ – get better over time for example  changes build on each other (increase – vocabulary) (decrease – aggression)  QUANTITATIVE – change in amount  Continuous – growing tree (seed, sprout, branches) o Discontinuous  Qualitative change  Changes happen which make the person into a DIFFERENT individual  Not more of the same  Stages – stage theory – discontinuous  One stage to the next, qualitatively different individuals – new capabilities (e.g. Thinking differs EXTREMELY through stages)  Discontinuous – stages of caterpillar – qualitatively different at each stage  Active Vs. Passive Development o Active  Humans are active participants in their own development  experiences, interactions, new things, people are changed!  Learn from experiences and can act on them to further our own development, make choices, set in certain directions o Passive  We are passive recipients of events  React/respond to internal drives and motivation  Behavior is a RESPONSE to external conditions  E.g. Rewards  BEHAVIOURALIST THEORIES Historical Foundations of Child Development th th Medieval Europe (6 – 15 Century)  Preformationism o Looked upon as fully formed, miniature adults, predominant view of time o Shown in cultures, behaviors and attitudes o Sculptures/paintings depicted children/infants with adult proportions and adult facial characteristics only smaller o ―arrived preformed in the adult mold‖ o seen in social life – children treated as adults at 6 or 7 (working, sent to other villages, carpentry etc.) children worked alongside adults, as soon as they could do something they would do it as work. 6 yr olds could enter adult work force, by 12 DEFINITELY in adult work force o marriage 12-16 years old with a full time job o no distinction between adults and children o embryology – 0 – 5 years old had special treatment, still treated as children  little people formed at conception (scientist view for a while)  evidence was not facts but rather couldn‘t see it before you could see it!!!  Coming of microscope- thinking started to shift o 1500‘s, skills don‘t come naturally for certain jobs (math, lawyers, etc.) rather than farming/manual labour – now need for SCHOOL  need to train/teach to get new types of jobs  fewer parents sending kids off at 6 or 7. Schools are important and age of sending off been increasing. Longer schooling periods  shifted from born adults to needing to be prepared  less of a mini adult and more of a FUTURE adult Darwin – baby biography of ways of studying our evolutionary past Two Pioneers in Child Psychology - radical departures from preformationism  John Locke o Father of environmentalism and learning theory o Nurture o Ideas are learned, we are not innate o Mind is a ‗tabula rasa‘, a blank slate o Develops through experience/environment o Most pliable during early years (by parents) o Associations, repetition, imitation, rewards, punishment  Jean-Jacques Rousseau o Developmental tradition o Nature o Children grow according to nature‘s plan o Natural (innate) plan for healthy growth  Different capabilities developed at different times o Noble savages  Essentially good and ready to develop  Innate sense of right and wrong  Society and environment corrupts them Science of Development  G. Stanley Hall o Founder of child study movement o Gathered EXTENSIVE data on ALL aspects of development o STRUCTURED and SYSTEMATIC o We follow an orderly plan for growth and development o NORMATIVE APPROACH  Take measures on large # of children  AVERAGES for each age group  Shows TYPICAL development of that behavior/measure  Eg. height  Laid groundwork for future study o Adolescence – a distinct phase in human life span Research In Developmental Psychology King Psamtik (Egypt)  Intellectually curious  Hypothesis: o If children had no exposure to language the would naturally speak their primal language, assumed to be egyptian o Were never spoken to, kept in isolation o At 2 yrs old said bakos: bread: frageans  THIS WAS FIRST DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY EXP. In recorded history FREUD – one of the first theories to explain development Scientific Method (objective – all people draw same conclusions)  1. Formulate Theories  2. develop specific, testable predictions (hypothesis)  3. Test Them Ways To Collect Data  Observe real life  Test people in controlled situations  Tests  Questionnaires and interviews 3 Most Commonly Used Research Methods  naturalistic observations  correlations  experiments Naturalist Observation  Observe in natural env.  Observe and record behave. Without interfering/influencing anything  Warm up to group prior to experiment  videos  Eg. Peppler and Craig o Watch kids w. aggressive behavs. On playground o Watch and listen (cams and mics) o Observed subtle forms of aggression  Observer must not affect o Behavs of those being observed o Dynamics of situation o HAWTHORNE EFFECT  Goal is to see REAL behaviours – ECOLOGICALLY VALID o When data and obs. Accurately reflect real life  Participant Observation o part of group ―ethnography‖ o get an insiders view o data is rich and complex o eg. Sybylle Artz  violent girls in BC  in depth look at how girls see themselves, felt about themselves, and factors that contributed Correlations  Look for relationship between variables  No control or manipulation of variables o Therefore it is impossible to determine the cause  Only shows whether they are RELATED or NOT… NOT THE CAUSES Experiments  To determine CAUSES  Create identical situations and randomly assign  Then change some variables (independent variables) and OBSERVE changes (dependent variables)  All conditions must be IDENTICAL except for variables being manipulated o Otherwise differences could be result of confounds  BUT controlling ALL confounds leads to artificial situations that don‘t truly reflect the real world  ecological validity - state of affairs in which the findings of one‘s research are an accurate representation of processes that occur in the natural environment.  field experiment - an experiment that takes place in a naturalistic setting such as home, school, or playground. Why use other methods?  Many things cant be studied through experiments  Some variables cannot be manipulated  Sometimes we cannot control conditions Developmental Researchers Rely on  Naturalistic observation  Correlational studies  Quasi-experiments o a study in which the investigator measures the impact of some naturally occurring event that is assumed to affect people‘s lives. Studying Age-Associated Changes  Research designs in developmental psych o Developmental studies focus on CHANGE OVER TIME 3 Types of Research Designs  longitudinal  cross-sectional  sequential Longitudinal  Study same individuals at different points in their lives o Months/years – tested every so often  Eg. Maurer and Lewis o Visual development of blind babies o Vision tested shortly after repair surgery then periodically after that for months  To see whether there is any development or not, rates or patterns of development too  Eg. Lewis and Terman o Kids with high IQ over 60 YEARS!!  Show changes over time  Show changes in family members across generations  Eg. Ledingham and Schwartzman o Low income, inner city kids o Followed till 20-30 o Then their kids were followed  Drawbacks: o Time consuming o People drop out o People could get used to tests (bored, improve) o Give GREAT info about GROUP/GENERATION BUT cant be sure others would show same pattern  (COHORT EFFECT) Cross-Sectional  Different ages at ONE point in time  cohort a group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments and historical events as they are growing up. o Cohort effect – not a true developmental change  ADV o Quick o Inexpensive (less than long.) o Less data/more manageable  DISADV o Tell us age differences but do not tell us age changes and how it changes from one stage to the next Sequential Designs  Combination of long/ and cross.  Start with CROSS. Of ages, then FOLLOW each age group over time  ADV: o Distinguish changes that apply to specific age groups o AND changes that apply to particular groups of children  One group vs. another group o Powerful – can investigate the effects of environmental changes Ethical Issues in Childhood Research 9/11/2013 2:22:00 PM Children – Very Special Group of Participants  Developmentally immature (cog., phys., psych.)  Dependent on adults  Very vulnerable Principles and Guidelines of Children Research  1. Protection From Harm o nothing can be mentally or physically harming o difficult to determine what is/will cause psychological damage  2. Informed Consent o must have consent of child (if old enough to understand) or from parents/guardians o assumes and hopes parents have best interests of children in mind o old enough to understand – generally 7-8 o but does 8-12 yr. old fully understand nature and possible consequences? o Subtle forms of coercion  Dependency issue - They see you as important, not comfortable saying no!  Not comfortable saying no / saying they don‘t want to continue o Free to discontinue participation at any time o 2 Aspects  informing  barriers  may be too young to understand language  too young to appreciate risks  too young to appreciate indirect benefits  consenting  barriers  may not realize there is a choice  unduly swayed by rewards  too young to decide (limited cognitive capacity for decision making) Factors Supporting Children Giving Consent and Participating  Researchers believe they would consent if they could  Have a chance to benefit others  Aids in civic development  Opportunity to learn about science (studies)  Consent can be given by proxy – giving them opportunity they wouldn‘t have received otherwise Children‘s Responses  Most reported positive experience  Glad they participated  Most understood what was required  Knew what they had to do  Few <12 understood the concept of confidentiality  Many felt withdrawing would have negative consequences Privacy and Rights to Knowledge of Results  All info must be kept confidential  Have right to be told results of the research in a language they can understand  Problematic when misinterpreted  Labels may become self-fulfilling o Eg. Below avg. kid is stupid. Treat them as such. Feels they are really stupid Beneficial treatments  Each child who participates has the right to profit from BENEFICIAL TREATMENTS given to other participants  Should be some positive benefits for their participation o Money/tangible rewards can be problematic o Form of manipulation or coercion  Should be fun, interesting, even as little as high five Debriefing  Explain what study was really looking at  If deception was used o May feel like they have been lied to o Can make them mistrustful of adults / research situations Research on Individual Differences (Genetic vs. environment)  3 methods for studying genetic and environmental influences o adoption studies o twin comparisons o blended family studies  Adoption Studies o Adopted child compared to members of adopted family (shared environment, genetically different) o Also compared with members of biological family (different environment, same genetics) o Where similarities lie indicates which factor is exerting more influence  Adoptive = environment  Biological = genetics o Must be adopted right after birth (this is to ensure they experience only one environment) o Difficulties:  Older ages being adopted  Many have special needs, and are therefore not representatives of NORMAL development  Adopted children may not be representative as a group to the general population/other groups  Twin Studies o Identical: MZ – monozygotic  Single egg  Identical cells  2 people with same genetic make up o Fraternal: DZ  2 different eggs and 2 different sperms  2 distinct people o twins share more similar environments than regular siblings  born into family at same time  same parenting style, living conditions, etc.  regular siblings do not experience same environment.  Parents/family situation change over time o Logic of twin studies  Identical – same genes, same environment  Fraternal – different genes, similar environment o If identical twins are MORE similar to each other on a certain characteristic, it is due to genetics o Potential problems  Frat. May not share same degree of environmental similarity as identical  Identical – treated more similarly  Might not be generalizable to entire twin population / general population  Depends on when the TWINNING took place  Blended Family Studies o Newer studies (divorced family) o Blended/step families  Full = same parents  Half = 1 same parent  Step = 0 same parents o Are siblings who are more genetically related more similar? o ADVANTAGES – more common than twin/adopted o DISADVANTAGES – results difficult to interpret (many extraneous / confounding variables) o Studies show relative contributions of genetics and environment o BUT  Do not and can not tell us HOW genetics and environment interact o CHILD A – easy temperament o CHILD B – difficult temperament  Both will experience very different environments A child‘s genetic predisposition helps to shape or trigger his/her environment  The environment in turn shapes and determines how the child will behave/act  Heredity and environment are constantly interaction Prenatal Development 9/11/2013 2:22:00 PM Prenatal – Period From Conception to Birth The gestation period is the total time from conception to birth, 266 days or 38 weeks, this is also the most rapid growth and development in a person‘s life! The original egg increases its weight by a billion times during this period! Normal Prenatal Development  Process of maturation  Changes and growth that occur in an orderly, predictable sequence o (due to genetic and biological programming)  Environmental factors o Interplay between nature and nurture 3 Periods in Prenatal Development  Period of the Zygote (germinal period) o Conception to 2 weeks  Period of the Embryo o Weeks 3-8  Period of the Fetus rd o Weeks 9-birth (start of 3 month until birth) Fertilization begins the period of the Zygote, which means fertilized egg and lasts roughly 2 weeks The Zygote then divides into 2 cells which take about 36 hours, and after 48 th hours they become 4 cells, then by the end of the 4 day there are 60-70 cells Blastocyst- 2 layers of cells, outer layer is the support system and the inner is the actual baby It makes its way through the fallopian tubes and attaches itself to the uterine wall which is known as implantation. At this point it is about the size of a period on a page of paper. Implantation marks the transition between the Zygote and the embryo If implantation is not successful for whatever reason then this is the precursor to a miscarriage or a spontaneous abortion, and the idea is that 30-40% of Blastocysts get miscarried just during the woman‘s next period, she wouldn‘t have even known she was pregnant. Embryo is weeks 3 to 8 in development and this is a very crucial time.  All of the tissues and structures that will house nurture and protect the baby are developed  Outer cell layer in blastocyst forms the… o Amniotic sac o Placenta  Allows the exchange of materials between the mother and the developing child o Chorion o Umbilical cord The embryo grows very rapidly like DAILY CHANGES 3 distinct Layers  Ectoderm o Outer layer  Skin and nervous system\  Mesoderm o Middle layer  Muscles, blood and excretory system  Endoderm o Inner layer  Digestive system lung and glands Development begins of  Neural tube which is the beginning of the nervous system and the brain  Heart  Body structures such as eyes, ears, nose, mouth, arm and leg buds that will develop into real arms and legs  *at this time it is already 10 000 times the size of the Zygote!!! During the first month it will not change of grow this rapidly By the end of this embryo stage it is what we would consider to be a recognizable human being  Lungs, digestive system, and major internal organs are forming but not yet functional Period of the fetus  Growth and finishing stage  Organs, limbs, muscles, and other systems become functional  It can now kick, suck its thumb, squirm, swallow, etc. By the end of the first three months it has all of the systems it needs to function as a human being but it is only 7.6 cm long and 114g and cannot survive on its own Month 7-9 the nervous system controls breathing and swallowing Brain develops rapidly, sensitive to pain and touch, can hear speech from outside Fetus is now considered ―VIABLE” which means it could survive outside the mother‘s body with special medical attention. 20% of fetus‘s survive if born at 24 weeks, but 90% survive if born at 29 weeks At about 36 weeks the baby assumes head down position ready for birth Prenatal Learning  Does the fetus learn? o Babies moving in the womb for a certain reason, etc.  Can unborn babies distinguish and recognize sound? o Peter Hepper (1989)  Expectant mothers in London England  Group 1 watched soap opera every day  Group 2 never watched it  After birth he played the theme song of the soap opera to both groups of babies, and the first group actually stopped crying and became alert, whereas the second group had no reaction! o Decasper and Spence  Last 6 weeks of pregnancy  Group 1 rhythmic books  Cat in the hat etc  Group 2 classical music  After birth soothers would turn on familiar music or the story and in every case the baby sucked the most and the hardest to hear the familiar sounds Babies learn to prefer the tone or pattern of familiar sound patterns Prenatal auditory experiences influence post natal auditory preferences and behaviours Learning is a change in behaviour as a result of experience If you give appropriate and repeated prenatal stimulation during fetal development it will create much more advanced neural pathways. Normal Process of Maturation – biologically programmed  Development that normally happens under ideal conditions o Good sperm and egg o Placenta and umbilical cord o Oxygen/nutrients o Freedom from external influences (disease, chemicals, toxins)  WHAT IF THESE ARENT IDEA L CONDITIONS? Heredity influences on development  Genes and inheritance patterns  Chromosomal  Inherited disease Environmental Influence on Environment  Physical and emotional  External factors o Nutrition o Exercise and physical health of the mother o Emotional stress o Maternal age o Drugs/substances Interaction of Heredity and Environment  Genetically PERFECT embryo may be damaged by environmental factors  If has minor genetic problems, they can be exasperated by environmental factors Teratology  Study of developmental abnormalities  Teras = monstrosity  Used to Learn, understand, and prevent o Teratogen  Any environmental agent that disturbs the development of embryo/fetus STUDIES OF TERATOLOGY 1. Environmental agents that affect mother while pregnant  Physical differences noticeable at birth  Caused by exposure/lack of exposure to something during pregnancy o Ex. Thalidomide (sleep agent, no arms/legs) o London, blind babies, pesticide 2. Environmental Agents that affect mother BEFORE conception  Accutane, stored in fat cells 3. Environmental Agents that Affect The Father a) before conception i. alter the sperm and possible baby‘s genetics ii. alcohol and cocaine (damages DNA) iii. workplace chemicals in clothes b) and are transferred to the mother WHILE pregnant o work related chems on clothes, solvents, paint thinner, etc. o chemicals in cigarettes o BC firefighters (is it damaged sperm? Or passed to mother?) 4. Environmental Agents that produce Behavioural, Learning, and Psychological Problems  methadone/heroin o addicted when born o problems @ school age  alcohol (during later stages of preg.) o learning difficulties 5. Environmental Agents that Produce Effects that do not become apparent until child is much older  hormone DES o prevents miscarriage  daughters developed cervical cancer  sons developed testicular cancer Depending on the period of development and the timing of exposure, teratogenic damage impacts different aspects of development Sensitive Period  Limited time span during which a body part/system develops most rapidly o EACH organ system is MOST VULNERABLE to disruption at the time it is developing most rapidly Exposure to Teratogens  SAME DRUG @ DIFFERENT TIMES leads to DIFFERENT EFFECTS  Zygote stage o Typically not considered susceptible to teratogens o No impact, OR impact is so great there is a miscarriage  Embryo Stage o Greater risk of PHYSICAL birth defects  Fetus Stage o Organ functioning o ESPECIALLY BRAIN Teratogens Exert Influence by Affecting Fetus  DIRECTLY o Passing from mother‘s blood to placenta  INDIRECTLY o Changing uterine  BOTH o Drugs, tobacco, alcohol, hormones, radiation, pollution, internal disease Smoking  Low birth weight (LBW)  < 5.5 lbs (2500 grams)  optimum: 6.6-11 lbs  birth weight is best predictor of infant survival and development o premature birth  small size indicates unable to complete prenatal development o full term  small size indicates prenatal malnutrition  lbw = poorer overall prognosis throughout life o newborn deaths  other negative outcomes o > miscarriage o still born o SIDS o Impaired breathing during sleep o Cancer later in childhood Conclusions  Birth wt of smokers lower than non-smokers  More cigs, smaller baby  Growth disadv. At birth tends to continue for years  Quitting leads to normal sized babies  Malformations, pneumonia  Children of smokers o Lower scores on spelling and reading tests o Shorter attention span How Does Smoking Have its Teratogenic Effects?  Damages placenta  Constricts blood vessels in uterus  Reduces flow of nutrients to placenta  Less oxygen and nutrients = LBW and structural problems  Tubal preg – egg embedded in fallopian tube (deadly)  Influences brain structure and hardwiring (more likely to smoke) Creates nicotinic receptors (for which we already have tons) in baby Didn‘t know impact of alcohol  Healthy mid aged women BUT o Moderate alcohol consumption o Medium ― ― o Great ― ―  Followed study to see short and long term effects of alcohol Infancy 9/11/2013 2:22:00 PM Readiness for life / Sensory and Perceptual Development / Early Learning Neonate – 1 months of life What can a newborn do?  60‘s Thoughts o thought they loved in booming, buzzing confusion o saw lights and shadows, no patterns o only capable of reflexes, and no higher order brain functioning  RESEARCH DONE  New way of thinking (Modern Way of Thought) o Self-controlled, organized, complex activity o Can show preferences (towards mother for example) o Actually a striking ability to learn The Newborn: Development and Discovery (VIDEO)  Early infant development  Bonding o Between mother/father & baby o Within minutes of delivery o Skin to skin contact in delivery room  Birth Weight o Preterm (<36 weeks) o Full term but still low birth weight o Isolates (box) if LBW  Premature o Lungs are the biggest concern o Surfactant (chem. in lungs) that keeps them open isn‘t produced to the full extent if baby is premature o Underdeveloped immune system  Postmaturity o >42 weeks after conception o risk of placenta being old and not functioning properly (poor amount/quality nutrients to baby) o not right oxygen and nutrients – growth problems associated with lack of oxygen o C-section / induction  First Breath o Can cry or not – both are normal o Must breathe on own for first time o Tested at 1 min and 5 mins. after to monitor how well doing on own  Brazelton Neonate Scale  Can never give too much attention  Colic o Even in good shape / healthy can be colicky o Starts around 1 month of age o Can be mistaken for illness – see pediatrician for sure o Can be stressful for family and breaks may be needed o 3-4 months colic goes away  sleep about 16 hours a day – fed in cycles with sleep (every few hours because of small stomach size)  breast milk is best – has ideal antibodies  feed them on demand, cycles are not the way to go anymore  don‘t wale if time to eat and vice versa  reflexes are indicators of healthy nervous system  feeding o rooting – locate source of nourishment o sucking – nipple o swallowing – reflex at first ,and then comes under control o sometimes hard to coordinate all of it so jerky movements/hard to breathe  Brain o Not a blank slate o Have cognitive ability (recognize mothers smell/voice) o Mimicking – smile, eyes, tongue o Respond to get reward, then get bored! o Foundation for higher reasoning skills  Cries – demanding attention  Cuddling – content  Temperaments o Easy o Difficult o Slow to warm o Give attention no matter what temperament PH Wolff  6 newborn behavioural states  found from observing infants activity over a long period of time  these are stages, so times spent in each one change over life o regular sleep  still  eyes closed  slow, regular breathing o irregular sleep  eyes closed but moving (REM)  jerk/grimace to stimulation  irregular breathing o drowsiness  falling asleep/waking up  eyes open and shut  glazed appearance  regular breathing but more rapid than regular sleep o alert inactivity (quiet alertness)  eyes wide open and bright  exploring something  even, steady breathing  body inactive o alert activity  eyes open  irregular breathing  fussy  bursts of motor activity o crying  intense crying  may be difficult to stop  high levels of motor activity Why is Identification of States Important?  1. Recognize subtle differences in degree of activity/inactivity in infants o eg. Drowsy vs. alert inactivity  could put to sleep at wrong time  need right stimulation at right time for OPTIMAL DEVELOPMENT  2. Discovered that infants‘ level of responsiveness depends largely on their PARTICULAR BEHAVIOURAL STATE o eg. Alert inactivity and Stimulation  leads to more behaviour  BUT IF already in active state however and give stimulation, they calm down, stop, and reorient  One kind of stimulation will not bring about the same response in an infant every time o Need to know what state they‘re in  Must know infant‘s state WHEN STIMULATION occurs before interpreting their reactions  To assess particular reactions, infants must be in the APROPRIATE STATE TO START Research Issues  Timing o Determines WHAT we see and HOW we interpret  Consistency o Needed to ensure that same type of response is being measured each time Something To Think About  Sleeping Patterns o Sleep wake cycles  Change depending on development  Not under parent‘s control  Need to let them sleep when they want  Eg. 8 hrs. of sleep means good parenting.. not necessarily!  Don‘t force infants into patterns  Responding To Crying o Ethological Theory (Attachment)  Responding to crying seems to meet infant‘s needs  Promptly  Bonding o Behavioural Theory  Reinforces the crying behaviour!  Positive reinforcement o These theories contrast: one says it is good, the other says it is bad! Infancy 9/11/2013 2:22:00 PM Infancy – Readiness for life, sensory & perceptual development, and early learning  Understanding and Researching Newborn/Infant Development Infancy research methods: Video  Preferential looking o 2 stimuli presented to child and they watch how they look at them o Observer watches child to see which stimuli they look at more often  Afterwards if the child shows they are looking at one more than the other, than we can conclude that they can perceive that there is a difference in the two stimuli  The example in the video was two patterns  Eye movements o The infant watches a stimulus and then we record how the infants eyes follow the stimulus o This can tell us what an infant is fixating on but not what they can actually see  Habituation o Infants prefer to look at new stimuli, rather than familiar stimuli, we record how long an infant looks at 2 different stimuli and then, as they alternate we see if the time the infant takes to look at the stimuli declines as they have seen it more times, and usually shows that the infant can distinguish between the two and as they become familiar with it, they spend less time looking at it o Dis-habituation is showing that when a new stimulus is presented after one stimulus has been familiarized, the new one strikes interest in the new stimulus showing again that they can distinguish between the two.  Standard conditioning o Teach infant to respond to stimulus by rewarding certain behaviour  Basically ways that help a child cooperate in a study like getting a child to know that when they hear a certain sound they should know to turn their head as they will see a dancing monkey, but when the sound is not presented they should not turn their head Some barriers to infant research are…  Attentiveness and state of mind  Could be a lot harder if they are tired or crying, etc.  No language from the babies, we rely on body language  Adults can make experience-based assumptions  Assumptions may be faulty  Use of mothers being present during the study *can we generalize o Would the same results have occurred if the dad was present, or someone else?  Infant ―states‖ can interfere  Depending on which babies cooperate and which do not, this could leave you with a non-representative sample First Year of Life:  Developments in infancy o Perpetual abilities  Psychophysiological methods Infancy : Early Motor Development  Locomotor Development o Developing mobility o Gross motor development  Fine motor development o Reaching o Manipulatory hand skills o The ―smaller‖ movements We learn about progressions in motor development to develop appropriate understanding and expectations of capabilities and to raise awareness of significant and drastic changes each new ability brings. Implications of motor development for infants  Motor development gives a child a whole new perspective on the world, such as when they are sitting down they see the world much differently than just laying down everywhere, on the floor, in the crib etc. o Once they learn to stand, then walk, etc the view of the world around them changes every time  Greater access to the world around them  Greater independence  Increased communication o Social relationships Locomotor Development: Between 6 & 12 months: Video  We see the development of o Motor control o Motor coordination and balance o Through the phases of learning to walk  The video is showing a 6 thmonth old baby named Erik who at this point cannot sit up by himself, and can only stand while holding on to something sturdy  We then see how he slowly progresses from rolling to crawling to standing to walking  By 10 and a half moths he can crawl no problem, even slide backwards on his belly  He can also walk along with a walker  By 12 months he takes his first few steps Physical Growth – Infancy Through Childhood The course and sequence of physical growth is regular and predictable  Not always the exact same but often very similar Boys and girls tend to grow taller and heavier in fairly smooth and similar patterns from 0-36 months Also fairly similar from age 2-20 The smooth trend of growth is a childhood characteristic and changes outside of childhood Distance Curves- plot average height and weight at each age  Called distance curves as it shows how far they have gone between each age  Can be used to compare individual children to growth norms  We see that girls tend to be a little bit lighter and a little bit shorter  Then it reverses at the age of around 11-14, but then again a little later on and then stays the way of boys being heavier and taller for the rest of their life Velocity Curve- plots an amount of increase in height in boys and girls  Shows us the amount of growth as opposed to the actual height, shows us the rate  During infancy there is a rapid decrease in growth which is much different than the prenatal development which is so rapid  So even though you are getting bigger each year the growth rate is slowing down a lot  There is another spike in growth when puberty hits and then slows down eventually for good  Velocity curves show growth spurts General Principles of Physical Development (Arnold Gesell, 1880- 1961)  Student of Stanley hall  Among the first to film children in studies  He made very precise observations and his work is very detailed  Four principles of his: 1. Different Rates of Development  There are general sequences that happen in orderly progression, but we have to notice that individuals just grow at different rates and that is still normal, this is obvious in infancy and adolescence  During middle childhood it tends to be much more even 2. Invariant Sequence of Development  Orderly sequence  Cephalo-Caudal principle o tendency for development to occur head downwards  Proximal-Distal Principle o Tendency for development to occur from torso  outwards 3. Principle of Differentiation  Tendency for physical responses to move from global reactions to controlled reactions (uncoordinated to complex, coordinated, voluntary control) 4. Principle of Asynchronous Growth  Different rates for different body parts  The head and hands and feet grow first o Evident during puberty ie the gangly teenager that is ―Clumsy‖ which is merely a result of the growth of hands and feet Impacts of Physical development on children’s interactions and learning Physical Changes:  Enlarge the number and range of experiences open to children  Alter the interactions children have with their environment and the people in that environment  Influence how children see and feel about themselves Age appropriate expectations  Know timing and sequence to know what to be expected Awareness of implications  Understand impact on those who develop slower/faster Three concepts arising from Gesell’s work on physical development Individual variations  Can be very obvious in kids to see their different sizes, or capabilities, etc. Readiness  Gesell believed that the biggest changes in development are due to biological maturation  Tried to emphasize that a child has to be developmentally ready before being asked to learn a new skill Developmental opportunity  Learning new skills is very important and can only occur if there are opportunities to learn Development of the Brain  During prenatal development o Neurons  Produced in centre of brain  Migrate to appropriate spots  Grow and differentiate (Specialize in function) o Teratogens can interfere with  Production  Migration  Differentiation  Of neurons  Alcohol exposure slows the production of neurons  Also cause neurons to migrate to wrong spots  This leads to improper development of the brain  This is apparent in fetal alcohol syndrome At birth: th  All needed neurons present by 6 month of pregnancy  This isn‘t the only time neural growth happens, but the fetus is equipped with all needed ones for development  Migration of neurons have occurred After Birth  neurons: o grow o differentiate (become the type they need to be) o form connections to other neurons Brain Growth Involves:  Neurons growing in size  Production of glial cells (carry out myelinization)  Increase in # of connections between neurons (communication with other neurons) CONNECTIONS ARE THE WIRING  STIMULATION o Strengthens connections o Forms new synapses o More input/stimulation = more extensive and elaborate connections (ex. Visually stimulating things will strengthen visual neuron connections) Physical Development: The Brain and Body  Connections are the ‗wiring‘  Stimulation: o Strengthens connections o Forms new synapses o More input/stimulation = more extensive & elaborate connections  Lack of stimulation: o Loss of connections  Synaptic pruning  ―use it or lose it‖  Types & numbers of connections determine how the brain will function o No/faulty migration  They can‘t make many or any connections o Initial connections not maintained  If not subsequently used, they‘ll be lost  Can also be beneficial in brain development – if initial connection is faulty, they‘ll be pruned back. Efficient for getting rid of things that aren‘t working properly o Many connections/frequent use  Increases complexity of the connections – that part of the brain will work well Brain is ‗prewired‘ for basic sensory and motor function  Neurons naturally migrate & differentiate  Prewiring must be used in order to fine tune it, and in some cases, continue to exist  Ex. Horizontal and vertical lines are prewired in our brains. o Kittens raised in an area with horizontal lines but no vertical lost the ability to perceive vertical lines and lost brain cells. Growth Spurts (in the brain) st  1 year (3-4, 8, 12 months, 2 years) o Increased synaptic formation  7, 9, 12, 15 years o Due to networks becoming more complex o Increased efficiency o Increased long-distance connections  Time of rapid growth – sensitive period o most susceptible to damage o if proper stimulation does not occur during sensitive periods, various areas of brain will not develop properly (connections not made/strengthened Stimulation comes from experiences  ―researchers are convinces that what wires a child‘s brain during each period is experience‖  Experiences triggering their brain development VIDEO:  Migrating neurons have an idea of where they‘re migrating to and can recognize their position in the brain Cognitive Development Throughout Childhood  Changes in thinking Cognitive-development theorists:  Cognitive development occurs in a set of predictable, invariant, and distinct stages o Perception, reasoning, memory, persons capacity for logical abstract thought John Piaget (1896-1980)  Stage Theory o At each stage, new abilities emerge allowing for major reorganization in child‘s thinking o Thinking at one stage very difference from thinking at the next stage Discontinuous  Changes & stages not genetically determined/wired into the brain (nature)  Cognitive development depends on brain maturation and active interaction with the environment o Complex development of brain structures allows for more complex thinking  Children actively construct new & elaborate ways of thinking  Knowledge comes from action Concepts/terms of Piaget  Schemes/schemata (scheme/schema) o Patterns or behaviour or thinking of children. What we use in dealing with objects in the world. o Organized info put into categories. Concepts/mental systems o Ex. Chair schema – what you see when you think of it  Adaptation  Assimilation  Accommodation  Equilibration Developmental Psych: Cognitive Development Throughout Childhood Concepts and Terms of Piaget  Schemes/schemata  Adaption  Assimilation  Accommodation o Changing an existing scheme to fit a new object o Example of a toddler having a scheme that objects are food but after putting a pine comb in their mouth they don‘t like it and accommodate a new scheme maybe a ―yucky‖ scheme of things that are not good to eat  Equilibration o The sequence of going from disequilibrium to equilibrium o When a person encounters a situation that can‘t be handled by an existing scheme creates disequilibrium o As soon as we are in that state we try to reduce the imbalance by.. o Developing a new scheme or adapt the old scheme until the material fits o If you have achieved this it means you have accommodated something Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  4 stages o In order o No child can skip a stage o But he did notice that they pass through the stages at different rates o Decalages  At different stages on different tasks  Different stages on the same task  ‗shifting‘ especially at stage transitions Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage  Birth-2 years old  Sensori-motor intelligence  Divided into 6 sub-stages: o 1. Reflexive schemes (birth-1 month)  1 schemes formed from inborn reflexes  Reflexes become self-initiated activity  i.e. sucking o 2. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)  Infant has new experience by chance and tries to repeat it (ex. thumb sucking)  Involves organizing or bringing together 2 previously separate body movement s or schemes (i.e. repeatedly bringing their hand to their face)  Always about the infants own body and movements o 3. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)  Infant discovers a
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