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Lecture 2

WEEK 2 notes

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Diane Glebe

WEEK 2- LEC 1 – Monday, September 9, 13 G.stanley Hall (1844-1924) - founder of ‘child study movement’ -gathered extensive data on all aspects of development -got it in a very structured, systematic way -imp* what he did was he attempted to get extensive info about all aspects of child development . normatic approach-to child study -take measures on large number of children -measure typical behaviour on large number of children.. ex. Measure height. -determine averages for each age level -indicated the ‘typical’ or average development of that behaviour RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - focus on things that are relevant to developmental- like what are the type of studies we do, particularly important to our field.. don’t need to know general stuff like what is the x or y variable . king Psamtik - Egypt.. he began with a hypothesis – if children ha no opp to learn to learn language around them, they would spontaneously speak the primal language of (most ancient people). He assumed it was Egyptian.. he wanted to prove Egypt’s were the most ancient people - Took 2 infants from low class mother, took them away, were taken care of properly, but just weren’t around people that would speak, gave to herdsman..- When 2 years old- bakors? - Which means bread - This was the first developmental experiment in recorded history- at least he did something to try to control a situation Scientific method - formulating theories - developing hypothesis - testing them Collecting data -observe people in real- life situations -test people in controlled, contrived situations -given 3 most commonly used research methods: - naturalistic observations - o observe children in their natural environments ( home, school, playground) o observe and record behaviour without trying to control or change it o one of the most commonly used research methods in child psychology o ex. Pepler and Craig (1995, Toronto) *recorded aggressive children’s behaviour on playground *watched and listened through video cameras and microphones, did it without interfering an being seen by the children *observed/recorded – very subtle forms of aggression *observer must not affect : behaviours of those being observed dynamics of situation GOAL: to see real everyday behaviors *ECOLOGIACLLY VALID data- stuff what truly tells us what’s going on in everyday life.. when observation accurately reflect real life . Participant observation : -oberver purposely becomes ‘part of the group’ to make observations part of ethnography GOAL: to get an ‘insiders view’ Data is very rich and complex EXAMPLE – Sibylle Arts (1998)- spend 100s of hours haging with 6 girls, teachers, councellor etc. became part of the group Violent girls in Victoria , BC In-depth look at girls’ perceptions of self and behaviours, contributing factors, etc… By doing that, you can see how activity and info is really rich and complex. correlations - look for relationships ( associations) between variables - no control/ manipulation of variables, don’t do anything ,don’t regulate anything, because of that its impossible to determine whether 1 variable causes the other. - Only shows whether or not variables are related. - DOES NOT show what causes what . experiments - To determine causes - Create identical situations ( and randomly assign) then systematically change some variables (independent variables) then observe the resulting behaviors (dependent variables) - All of the CONDITIONS must be IDENTICAL EXCEPT for the variable(s) being manipulated -otherwise, differences could be the result of confounds- other uncontrolled things that might cause the results - controlling all confounds leads to experiments so artificial, they don’t resemble the real world -try to use as many experimental aspects as possible. -are the best or only way to determine causes. Why use other methods? -many topics cant be studied through experiements -some vaiables just cant be manipulated- sometimes impossible to do true experiement -sometimes you can’t control the conditions ( i.e. the different groups) Developmental researchers rely on naturalistic observation correlational studies or quasi experiments studying age-associated changes research designs in Dev’l psych -developmental studies focus on change over ti e (age- associated/ age-related changes) 3 types of research designs (used specifically in developmental psych) 1. Longitudinal designs – study same individuals at different points in their lives, can be weeks to months ot years ( time period) -observing or testing a person over time EX. Maurer and Lewis - visual dev. In blindbabies - vision tested shortly after surgery - then periodically for up to several months after surgery this type of approach tells them whether there IS development in vision, the RATE of development and the PATTERN of development EX. Lewis and Terman ( -studied high-IQ (gifted) children -lasted over 60 years! -Tested 1922, 1928 thn every 5 years til mid 1980s. *these studies show: changes in individuals over time and changed in family members across time EX. Ledingham and Schwartzman Concordia Longitudinal project -children from low-income, inner city neighborhoods -studied into their 20’s and 30’s (changes in individuals) -then their children were studied ( changes across generations) - can combine these things and answer questions. DRAWBACKS for longitudinal studies - very time consuming - people often drop out - may become used to the tests ( improve; get bored) - give detailed info about a particular group. Generation, but cant be sure other groups / generations would show similar pattern 2. cross- sectional designs - study children of different aes at one point in time - group of 3 yr olds, group of 5 yr olds, group of 7 yr olds. - Measure, then compare the different age groups ADVANTAGES - quick - inexpensive - less data/ more manageable 3. Sequential designs COMBINATION of longitudinal and cross sectional
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