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developemntal november 14th, 19th.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Diane Glebe

Defining “who I am” From toddlerhood  Qualities/categories o One of the earliest: gender  Dichotomous dimensions o Either…..or…… Self-concept  The characteristics, abilities, attitudes and person sees themselves as having  How you see yourself o “I am tall, I am smart, I am interesting”  By age 6, children have a self concept that includes many characteristics, but these characteristics still tend to be very concrete Self esteem  How a person evaluates their self concept  How you feel about those qualities o “Do I feel good about being athletic and bad at math”  Susan Harter o 4-7 yrs: specific/separate areas of competence  they do have notions about their own competence  all evaluated as separate aspects of the self “I am this and I am this and I am this”  results in multiple areas of esteem, not an overall self worth o Global self-esteem emerges around age 7 o Most children enter kindergarten believing that they can and will learn  Highly evaluate and over evaluate their abilities in many areas  Because they assume “I can do that, I am great at that”  Children who get negative evaluations, can lead to a poor self concept as a learner. Feel like “I am not good at this and I am not good at this”. Results in a lower academic self esteem  Leads to lower performance  Leads to more negative teacher evaluations The downward spiral of Self esteem Negative Evaluation Poor performance  Poor self concept as a learner  Ways of promoting development of academic self concept and esteem 1. Accept children AS THEY ARE a. All are valuable; all have skills 2. Avoid setting up competitions among students if only the most able to have a chance to win 3. Avoid unnecessary distinctions among students a. i.e. ability groupings 4. make it clear there are a. many valuable skills b. many ways to succeed 5. praise progress and effort, not just achievement a. avoid “false praise” i. “that is the best drawing ever” “that is perfect” ii. not realistic and not true iii. what happens when you do exert extra effort, or they do something exceptional… you get the same response as everything else. Because there is no distinction left iv. gets away from instilling the idea that working hard and trying hard leads to better performance an better evaluations b. avoid “person praise” i. praising general traits of an individual ii. “you are so smart” “you are so artistic” “you’re a super student” iii. leads children to focus on showing how smart they are, what a good student they are etc. iv. may be a good thing, however, if they try something new and don’t do great at it, then these children tend to give up very quickly. c. Provide “process oriented praise” i. “you made a really creative choice of colour, it really made your picture stand out” ii. shows kids that mastering small processes of something are the goal of learning, not just how smart they are as a whole iii. leads them to go back and find a new approach if they don’t do well at something *where do you or don’t you see the specific terms, maybe examples of the guidelines, or children showing a global self concept etc* Moral Development: chapter 15 “Morality” 3 key terms: Values  Specific beliefs that people have about the relative worth of certain behaviors or attitudes Morals  Standards of behaviours based on certain values Conscience  Integrated sets of beliefs about right and wrong o An integration of morals or standards of behavior Cognitive developmental theory: Define development in terms of sequential changes that are related to moral development, changes in our cognitive capacities Theories of moral development(moral reasoning) Piaget:  Suggested that morality progresses through 3 stages (some texts only refer to 2) 1. Pre-moral Period: Toddler/preschool a. Egocentric, highly changeable, focus on their immediate desires. If they want it ,it is okay to take it. b. No sense of right or wrong, no morality c. No malicious intention to do so, no attempt to manipulate, they are just making it fit with their viewpoint 2. Heteronomous(handed down) Morality: 5-10 yrs of age a. Rules handed down by authority b. Permanent, unchangeable c. Require strict obedience d. Observable consequences/reactions of people e. Outwardly determined 3. Autonomous Morality: 10+ years a. Different people have different perspectives b. Rules created and agreed upon cooperatively c. Flexible d. Intentions recognized
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