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Lecture

Chapter 7 Reading Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS276
Professor
Diane Glebe
Semester
Summer

Description
READING NOTES Chapter 7 Work, Leisure, and Media Adolescents' Free Time in Contemporary Society • One indirect effect of compulsory high school was to increase the most amount of free time available to young people – time that previously would have been occupied by work ◦ Adults were worried about free time available to adolescents so they started Boy Scouts and organized sports in order to occupy their “idle hands” • Asecond influence on the rise of free time for adolescents in was the increased affluence of Americans following WWII ◦ The invention of the “teenager” and the discovery of the teenager by those in advertising and marketing chanced the nature of adolescence in modern society Patterns of Time Use in Contemporary America • Two groups asked to fill out a questionnaire about what they were doing using the “beeper method” ◦ Suburban, middle class White teenagers and urban, poor Black teenagers ▪ In both groups, leisure activities account for about half their waking time • Individuals who were busy ninth-graders were likely to be busy throughout high school • Overall, adolescents free time is not best though of as a “zero sum” phenomenon, whereby involvement in one activity necessarily displaces involvement in another • Busier adolescents are better adjusted and more achievement oriented than their classmates ◦ Whether their adjustment is cause by or results from their busy schedules is not clear Patterns of Time Use in Other Countries • Generally,American adolescents spend far more time on leisure and far less time in productive activities than their counterparts in other countries ◦ Asian and European adolescents spend almost 3 times as many hours reading each week for pleasure than doAmerican adolescents Recap • The rise of compulsory sctholing and the increasing affluence ofAmerican society in the second half of the 20 century contributed to the increased importance of free time in the lives of contemporary adolescents • Today'sAmerican adolescents spend about half their time in leisure activities far more the is the case in most other industrialized countries • There is considerable variability in how individual adolescents spend their free time; some are very busy with structured extracurricular activities, while others' time is far more unstructured Adolescents and Work Teenage Employment in America and in Other Nations • Why is student employment more common in the US than Europe orAsia? ◦ Part-time employment opportunities are not as readily available elsewhere as they are inAmerica ◦ The scheduling of part-time jobs in other countries is not well suited to the daily routines of students ◦ In most other industrialized countries, the employment of children is associated with being poor and there is a strong stigma attached to having one's children work ◦ Schools in countries other than the US require more out-of-school time for homework The Adolescent Workplace Today • CommonAdolescent Jobs ◦ The vast majority of teenagers are employed in the retail and service industries ▪ Older students are more likely to hold formal jobs (restaurants) ▪ Younger students hold informal jobs (babysitting) ▪ Working teenagers in rural areas likely to work in agricultural occupations • TheAdolescent Work Environment ◦ One study found that, in the typical fast-food restaurant, nearly all workers were teenagers, the supervisor was usually not much older, and the customers were often young people too ◦ Most teenagers' jobs are repetitive, monotonous, and intellectually unstimulating ▪ Some are highly stressful, requiring youngsters work under intense time pressure without much letup and exposing them to potential injury and accidents Employment and Adolescent Development • The Development of Responsibility ◦ Studies indicate that intensive employment during the school year may negatively affect young people's development and preparation for work ◦ Some research has found high rates of misconduct on the job among adolescent workers ▪ e.g.) Stealing from employers, falsifying numbers of hours worked ◦ One aspect of responsibility is that working affects money management ▪ Instead of saving it, they often spend it on clothes or cars, drugs and alcohol ◦ Many working teenagers suffer from premature affluence – which results from getting used to having a relatively luxurious standard of living before one has any serious financial responsibilities like rent, food or utility bills ◦ The impact of working on the development of maturity depends largely on the nature of the job • The Impact of Schooling ◦ Experts believe that working more than 20 hours a week may jeopardize adolescents' school performance and engagement ▪ There is no evidence that summer employment affects school performance • The Promotion of Problem Behaviour ◦ Employment during adolescence does not deter delinquent activity ◦ Several studies suggest that working long hours may actually be associated with increases in aggression, school misconduct, minor delinquency, and precocious sexual activity ▪ Delinquent youth are more likely than their peers to choose to work long hours • Increases in long work hours leads to increased drug, tobacco and alcohol use • Possible Benefits for Poor Youth ◦ Working may have special benefits for inner-city adolescents from poor families, with poor school records, or with prior involvement in delinquency ◦ However, working during junior high or early high school may increase the chances that poor minority youth will drop out of school and engage in problem behaviour ▪ This may be because working in early adolescence may make school seem less important, whereas working in late adolescence, when making the transition to adult work roles is more imminent, may make school seem more so Youth Unemployment • May commentators have argued that expanding opportunities for community service will help integrate adolescents into the community, enhance their feelings of confidence and responsibility, and put them into contact with adult role models • Studies of service learning – non-paid programs, sometimes connected with school that place adolescents in the community – indicate that some volunteer experiences may enhance adolescents' self-esteem and feelings of efficacy, impact academic and career skills, enhance community involvement, improve mental health, and deter problem behaviour • Asecond suggestion is that communities improve their employment and counselling services for young people and strengthen youth organizations • Another proposal is thatAmerican schools experiment with apprenticeship programs modelled after those found in Europe ◦ They introduce young people to the work force early in high school and would gradually move them from full-time school into a mixture of school and work, and finally into full-time employment Adolescents and Leisure • Boredom is more commonly reported by more affluent students • One important distinction is that adolescents choose their leisure activities ◦ They can be structured of voluntary ▪ e.g.) Sports, hobbies, artistic activities, clubs Adolescents' Free Time and Their Moods • The Experience Sampling Method ◦ ESM is a method of collecting data about adolescents' emotional states, in which individuals are paged and asked to report on their mood and activity ▪ In the early days of ESM, they used pagers to “beep” now they use personal digital assistants (PDA's) ◦ Adolescents' moods while with friends become more positive, whereas their moods while with their family follow a curvilinear pattern ▪ e.g.) Moods with their parents were more negative • Solitude ◦ Findings suggest that periods of solitude may be associated with negative mood in the short term but with positive mood in the long term ◦ It is only when adolescents are playing sports or involved int he arts, a hobby, or an extracurricular organization that they report high levels of both concentration and interest ▪ This combination produces what psychologists refer to as a flow experience Structured Leisure Activities • The most popular extracurricular activity is athletics • Participation in extracurricular activities is influenced greatly by social class ◦ Participation is more prevalent among adolescents from affluent families, students who earn better grades and are from smaller schools, where school activities often play a relatively more central role in the lives of adults and adolescents alike • The Impact of Extracurricular Participation on Development ◦ Longitudinal studies indicate that participation in an extracurricular activity actually improves students' performance in school and reduces the likelihood of dropping out; deters delinquency, drug
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