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Ch.5 Anxiety Disorders Section includes: Panic disorder & GAD Etiology of Panic Disorder & GAD (Psychodynamic perspective, Cognitive Behavioural Perspective, Biological Perspective) Treatment of Panic Disorder and GAD (Treatment of Panic Disorder and G

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Kathy Foxall

Anxiety DisordersIncludepanic disorder generalized anxiety disorder GAD phobias obsessivecompulsive disorder acute and posttraumatic stress disordersEvery healthy person experiences some anxiety at different timesAnxiety disorders 13 of costs for mental disorders in USManifested in cognitive behavioural and somatic realmsCognitivetake place in a persons thoughtsBehaviouraloccur in a persons actionSomaticchanges in a persons physiological or biological reactionsawareness of illogical and selfdefeating naturereasonable doses of anxiety act as a safeguard to keep us from ignoring danger and anxiety appears to have an adaptive functionAnxiety disorderAnxiety itself is the major disturbanceThe anxiety is manifested only in particular situationsAnxiety results from an attempt to master other symptomsPanic disorderGADboth involveunfocused anxiety free floatingofree floatingthe affected individual is fearful and apprehensive but often does not know exactly what he or she is afraid ofpanic disorder includes episodes of intense fear with somatic symptomsGAD chronic pathological worryPanic disorder5 of females 23 males 35 MF lifetime prevalence onset in adolescence and mid 30s chronic symptoms fluctuate1413 American university students reported panic attack in last yearsudden symptoms minuteshours usually less than 20 minutesoapprehension feelings of impending doomopounding heartosweating trembling1oshortness of breathochoking sensationochest painonauseaodizzinesslightheadednessofeelings of unrealityofear of dying ofear loss of controlonumbnesstinglingochillshot flashesmay be triggered by specific immediate circumstancesmay seem to come out of the bluemany selfmedicatemany develop agoraphobiaanxiety about leaving the home fear attack in publico13 of individuals diagnosed with a panic disorder also have agoraphobiaMost of these panic attacks are associated with an identifiable stimulusBackgroundprecipitating factorschildhood anxiety over separation from parents family conflicts school problemsmay be precipitated by separation experiences major life stressesGeneralized Anxiety Disorders GADpersistent high levels of anxietyexcessive worry over many life circumstancesafflicted people are easily startled and are continually on edgeunable to discover the real source of their fears they remain anxious and occasionally experience even more attacks of anxietyphysiological reactions associated with GAD tend to be less extreme than those that accompany panic disorder but also tend to be more persistentsymptoms includeomuscle tensionopalpitations tremblingorestlessnessosleep difficulties2
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