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PS280-Z Lecture 1 – Tuesday July 9th, 2013.docx

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Kathy Foxall

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th PS280-Z Lecture 1 – Tuesday July 9 , 2013 What is Abnormal Behaviour? - Statistical infrequency o What is problematic with this approach?  Someone who is very intelligent can be considered abnormal - Violation of norms o Some norms are oppressive o Norms change and vary through time and across cultures - Personal distress o Is being distressed always a sign of pathology?  Imagine if someone you love dies – does it mean there is something wrong with you if you‟re distressed? Not at all  It would be more distressing if you were not sad o If someone does not feel distress, can it be reasonable to suggest the person has a mental disorder? - Disability of dysfunction o Somebody cannot do certain things because of their phobia - Diagnosis by an expert o Not always correct History of Abnormality Prehistory and Later Times - Supernatural causes - Trepanation (also known as trephinning) o Cutting holes in people‟s heads to let out evil spirits - Alternative explanation o Our early ancestors knew more than we‟ve given them credit for Hunter-Gatherer Societies - Belief that witchcraft causes many illnesses Ancient Greek and Roman Approaches - Naturalistic explanations for mental illness - Hippocrates; mental illness due to a disturbance of the „humors‟ (assessed by looking at the patient‟s blood) o Advocated good nutrition, quiet, rest - Common treatments: abstain from bloodletting (deliberately bleed a person), forced vomiting - Plato looked at socio-cultural factors - Romans considered physical and mental causes, treatment included listening to the patient Arabian Approach to Mental Illness - Built asylums - People treated with compassion and kindness - Natural causes - Environmental and psychological factors 500-1500 AD - Return to supernatural explanations in Europe - Demons - Exorcism - In Spain, humane attitudes prevailed - 1 N.A. asylum built in Mexico Exorcism - Still practiced - Vince Lampert is a Catholic priest in the US who was trained as an exorcist - Deaths - If the person floated then it means the spirit was still present End of the middle Ages and 16 and 17 Centuries - Partial return of naturalistic explanations - Horrific conditions in many mental institutions in Europe - Chained to walls, treated worse than animals - Tortured with „treatments‟ - Branding to the head, dunked repeatedly in water, spun in harnesses History of Psychopathology - Development of asylums o Bethlehem (Bedlam)  Narrow corridor with windows for people to view the inmates  Treated like a circus  They would pay admission to watch them  Unsanitary and very crowded o Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)  Observations and inquiries upon the Diseases of the Mind, 1812
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