Class Notes (839,242)
Canada (511,223)
Psychology (2,794)
PS280 (78)
Lecture 2

PS280-Z Lecture 2 – Thursday July 11th, 2013.docx

7 Pages
99 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS280
Professor
Kathy Foxall

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
th PS280-Z Lecture 2 – Thursday July 11 , 2013 Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Historical Factors - The DSM-II – 6 independent categories for children, DSM-IV-TR includes 44 categories - Developmental psychopathology emerged as a separate field of study in the 1970s Three Principles of Developmental Psychopathology 1. Normal behaviour is multiply determined o Multiple factors/causes 2. The child/adult influence is reciprocal o Children are affected by adults and adults are affected by children 3. Children need to have certain experiences to develop normally Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) - Prevalence disorders in children 4 to 16 years of age - Studied conduct disorder (CD), hyperactivity (ADHD), emotional disorder, and somatisation disorder - The 6-month prevalence rate for any of the disorders was 18% Special Issues when dealing with Children - Parents’ and teachers’ reports are often considered more important in assessment than the child’s input o Often we do not give enough attention to the child’s input - Focus on intervention is often not on the child, but on instructing others how to deal with behaviour problems (such as the family) o In some cases on the teachers - Children typically have little control over important aspects of their life o Children lack the cognitive capacity or emotional maturity to understand  Do not understand a need for change - Parents may not be working in the child’s best interests o Some parents are so invested in their children that it becomes problematic in that if their child has problems, they see this as a negative reflection of themselves  And if they see it like that, it means that the child really does not have problems Externalizing vs. Internalizing Disorders - Externalizing problems in childhood o We see the behaviour affecting other people – problematic for other people o The distress, the problem, the pathology is enacted in the world o Such as ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder - Internalizing problems o The child that bears the harm of the symptoms Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorders - Present before age 7, persists 6 months or more - Display characteristics in two or more settings - Some also have a conduct disorder - 6% of Ontario school-aged children have ADHD o 3-5 times more common in boys than girls o Probably under-recognized in girls  Excessive talkativeness may be a symptom of ADHD o 8x more boys referred to clinics - Distracted by irrelevant stimuli - Organize information poorly, omit information, inaccurate detail - Attentional difficulties cause the most trouble for the child Types of ADHD 1. ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type 2. ADHD predominantly inattentive type (also known as ADD and seen more often in girls) 3. ADHD combined type (inattention and hyperactive) Co-Morbidity and Prognosis - Persists into teen years - Co-morbid with conduct disorder (40%) - Learning disabilities also common with ADHD - Montreal Hospital follow-up study o Followed clinical sample o Age 25-30, 1/3 outgrow all symptoms of ADHD o Firestone found that aggressive ADHD children were the ones who ran into the most trouble o Substance abuse and poorer academic and occupational records and antisocial personality disorder Etiology of ADHD - Biological predisposition is likely o Increased levels of ADHD and other psychiatric problems in families o Heritability between 30% and 50% - High levels of ADHD in children exposed to alcohol in utero o Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder  Some symptoms can be seen at birth - Smoking in pregnancy o Much more likely to have ADHD for the child - Lead; evidence mixed (generally there is an association) Etiology of ADHD: Dietary Factors? - 1970s-80s - Feingold diet o Certain foods and additives were to be kept out of the child’s diet o Sugar - Highly subjective maternal evaluations of behaviour - Biological challenge tests had little effect - Elimination of diets have little effect Brain Functioning - PET scans - Reduced glucose metabolism in adults - Smaller right frontal region Treatment for ADHD - Pharmacological treatment o Ritalin (methylphenidate) is the most frequently prescribed, followed by Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine)  Popular drug of abuse  Side Effects: loss of appetite, loss of sleep, loss of weight, high blood pressure, etc  At very high doses people will seem and look as if they are schizophrenic  Once the drug is out of their system then they are back to normal - Behavioural and psychological treatments appear less useful - May assist with social skills and behaviour control o Hard to internalize behavioural control o When you give rewards, it might get better, but after the reward is taken away then the behaviour comes back - Supporting counselling may be useful to parents Reactive Attachment Disorder - First appeared in the DSM-III - Related to abuse or neglect in childhood o Disruptions in attachment in early life - Abuse, neglect, institutional living, multiple foster home placements - May be diagnosed as early as infancy - Inability to form normal relationships with other people o Impaired social development o Sociopathic behaviours - About a serious problem in the bond between the child and caregiver(s) o About love, loss of love, or broken love Symptoms of RAD - Unable to be close with others o Sometimes a pseudo closeness that isn’t real - Impulsive - Aggressive - Erratic mood swings - Disinhibited RAD – not a real attachment, tries to be very friendly with everyone - Inhibited RAD – the person is very distant Treatment of RAD - Children need to know that they are loved no matter what Oppositional Defiant Disorder (externalizing disorder) - ODD is diagnosed with children who behave in a negative, hostile, or defiant manner to a greater degree than other children (verbally fight a lot) Conduct Disorder (externalizing disorder) - Children with CD show a repetitive and persistent pattern of conduct in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated o Physically assaultive, dishonest, deceptive, steals, malicious, and lacks empathy o Another bad sign would be torturing animals (and getting pleasure out of it) – shows a lack of empathy o Bedwetting at an older age (probably related to neurological immatu
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit