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Lecture 6

PS280-Z Lecture 6 – Thursday July 25th, 2013.docx

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Kathy Foxall

th PS280-Z Lecture 6 – Thursday July 25 , 2013 Mood Disorders and Suicide Phases and Severity - Unipolar vs. biopolar 1. Unipolar 2. Bipolar a. Depression and mania b. Depression and hypermania - Duration and severity Conditions for Clinical Diagnosis - Severity 1. Interference (does it interfere with their inability to perform) o Depression interferes with ability to function in work, school, and relationships 2. Range of symptoms o Affects feelings and behaviour Core Symptoms of Depression Affective - Necessary but not sufficient for a diagnosis o Mood down, sad most of the time, every day for 2 weeks o OR (must have one of the two) o Loss of interest or pleasure in things that they used to enjoy most of the time, everyday (anhedonia) for 2 weeks or more (things seem gray) Affective Symptoms of Depression - Include core symptoms on previous slide - Feelings of worthlessness - Guilt - Anxiety (found very common in depression) Cognitive Symptoms of Depression - Pessimistic thinking - Loss of motivation - Work and household chores seem like a great effort - Feelings of incompetence - Put self down - Thoughts of death in general and/or suicide - Difficulty concentrating Behavioural Symptoms of Depression - Low activity/energy level - Social withdrawal, lowered productivity - Poor grooming - Psychomotor slowing - Some are agitated, restless Physiological Symptoms of Depression - Loss of appetite, weight (some people gain weight) o Seasonal affective disorder – gaining weight (normally happens during the winter) - Constipation - Sleep difficulties; insomnia, especially early morning awakenings, or hypersomnia - Women may have longer menstrual cycles, may skip period(s) - Decreased libido - Findings on hippocampus Prevalence and Course - In Canada o Prevalence estimated to be about 8% o Two times higher in females than males (most likely to be an under recording and men also tend to do things to try and hid their depression, such as substance abuse or aggression) o Many people have multiple episodes of depression - Depression is often untreated o Estimated that only 50% of people actually receive a diagnosis Comorbidity - High comorbidity with anxiety - Overlapping symptoms of poor concentration, irritability, hypervigilance, fatigue, guilt, memory loss, sleep diffic
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