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PS280-Chapter 3 Lecture Notes.doc

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John Stephens

1 PS280: Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes Chapter 3: Classification and Diagnosis Diagnostic System of APA · 5 Dimensions of Classification o Axis 1: All Diagnostic Categories Except Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation o Axis 2: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation o Axis 3: General Medical Conditions o Axis 4: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems o Axis 5: Current Level of Functioning · We all use terms to describe people around us, terms that are broadly used · We need accuracy in actually putting terms to people; therefore we need the DSM- 4 o DSM-4: Diagnostic Statistical Manual-4 o All the conditions you can think of are organized in this system of classification · Axis 1: every condition except for personality and mental retardation; why not these two categories...because they are very rare disorders, have their own axis (Axis 2) · Axis 3: need to take into account medical issues, they change the equation of symptoms disorder drastically · Axis 4: need to take into account environmental or social issues that could cause disorder like symptoms, i.e. mother being killed, post traumatic stress induced symptoms · Axis 5: description between 1-100 of how mentally healthy a person is o 100 meaning pinnacle of perfection, pure mental health; 50 = hallucinations o Measures how severe a condition and symptoms are Classification of Disorders · Substance-Related Disorders · Schizophrenia · Mood Disorders o Major depressive disorder- person is deeply sad and discouraged, likely to lose weight and energy and have suicidal thoughts o Mania-person described as exceedingly euphoric, irritable, more active than usual, distractible, and possessed of unrealistically high self-esteem o Bipolar disorder-person displays both depressive and mania symptoms (separate episodes) · Anxiety Disorders o Phobia- intense fear of an object or situation; avoid it even though fear is unreasonable 2 o Panic disorder- person subject to sudden but brief attacks of intense apprehension  Symptoms like a heart attack, often accompanied with agoraphobia (fear of public) o Generalized Anxiety Disorder-fear and apprehension are pervasive, persistent, and uncontrollable; worry constantly, always on edge o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-subject to persistent obsessions or compulsions to avoid anxious feelings and thoughts o Post-traumatic stress disorder-experiencing anxiety and emotional numbness in the aftermath of a very traumatic event o Acute Stress Disorder-similar to PTSD but the symptoms do not last as long · Somatoform Disorders o Somatization Disorder-long history of multiple physical complaints; spoken to doctors about it o Conversion Disorder-report the loss of motor or sensory function; paralysis or blindness o Pain Disorder-suffer from severe and prolonged pain o Hypochondriasis- misinterpretation of minor physical sensations as serious illness o Body Dysmorphic Disorder- preoccupied with an imagined defect in their appearance · Dissociative Disorders o Dissociative Amnesia- may forget their entire past or lose their memory for certain time period o Dissociative Fugue- individual suddenly/unexpectedly travels to a new place; starts new life cannot remember previous memories or previous identity (previous life) o Dissociative Identity Disorder- possesses two or more distinct personalities, each complex and dominant one at a time (multiple personality disorder) o Depersonalization Disorder-a severe and disruptive feeling of self- estrangement/unreality · More time spent on mood and anxiety, because they are the most evident · Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders o Paraphilias- sources of sexual gratification (sadism/masochism) are unconventional (harsh) o Sexual Dysfunctions- unable to complete the unusual sexual response cycle o Gender Identity Disorder- discomfort with actual sex · Sleep Disorders o Dyssomnias-sleep is disturbed in amount, quality, and unable at conventional times o Parasomnias- experiences unusual events during sleep (walking, nightmares) · Eating Disorders 3 o Anorexia Nervosa o Bulimia Nervosa o Binge Eating Disorder · Factitious Disorder o Applied to people who intentionally produce or complain of physical or psychological symptoms o Need to assume the role of a sick person · Adjustment Disorders o Involves the development of emotional/behavioral symptoms following the occurrence of a major life stressor o Not significant enough to be diagnosed with an Axis 1 disorder · Impulse-Control Disorder o Intermittent Explosive Disorder- episodes of violent behavior that results in destruction of property and injury of another person o Kleptomania- person steals repeatedly, not for monetary gain o Pyromania- person purposefully sets fires and enjoys it o Pathological Gambling- unable to stop gambling o Trichotillomania- person cannot resist the urge to puck out their hair · Personality Disorders o Schizoid Personality Disorder- person is aloof, has few friends, indifferent to praise and critics o Narcissistic Personality Disorder- overblown sense of self-importance, fantasizes about great success, requires constant attention, likely to exploit others o Anti-Social Personality Disorder- conduct disorder before age of 15, runs away from home, delinquency and general belligerence, feels no guilt for violation of norms  Also called psychopath · Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorder o Delirium: clouding of consciousness, wandering attention, incoherent stream of thought o Dementia
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