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Lecture 5

PS283 Week 5 Lecture notes

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Alexandra Gottardo

th Wednesday October 10 2012 Week 5 lecture 10 *section about brain is not on the midterm (behaviourism is not on the exam) Bullying - Physical aggression: hitting- physical fights (tends to be more common in boys) - Relational aggression: harder for teachers to see- words and how children are treated (rumours- excluding other children- stuff behind their back)(definitely more common in girls) - Reactive bullying: a kid reacting to someone teasing them or something (often happens with kids with ADHD who misinterpret what someone says to them) - Proactive bullying: calculated and planned bullying (predatory) seeking out weakest child and bullies them Peer learning - Acquisition of knowledge and skill through active helping & supporting - Equal or matched status Types of peer learning - Peer tutoring (PT) • Tutor0tutee • Curriculum content focus - Cooperative learning (CL) • Shared goal • Encourage equal participation • Want groups to be heterogeneous (mixed ability groups), positive interdependence (everybody has to help) Effects of peer learning - Academic achievement - Social & communication skills - Affective functioning (helps tutor with self-esteem)(helps people trust other people not in their social group) - Cost-effective (getting volunteers to tutor saves money) Social systems: culture - Behaviour patterns & beliefs of a group of people transmitted across generations - Cross-cultural studies - Individualism - Collectivism Individualism (western) - Persons independent of each other - Personal responsibility - Rights before duties (rights take priority over duties to societies or something) - Integrity of others Self & individualism - Need for positive sense of self - Celebrate accomplishments Collectivism - Role of groups - Common goals, values & fates Development of self (Erikson) - Initiative vs. guilt - Industry vs. inferiority (perseverance) - Identity vs. identity confusion (identi
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