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Lecture 3

Health Psychology Lecture 3.docx

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Scotney Evans

Week 2 Lecture 3 Health Psychology The Macro-Social Environment and Health Obesity Life Expectancy • By 2060, life expectancy could reach 90-100 years o Could have a toll on the amount of resources we have (ex. Fresh water) • Aging population • Life expectancy growing meaning more demands on resources and economies Global Health Trends: Shaping Our Understanding of Social Context • Where a baby is born, the mother’s access to food, water, her level of education and wealth determine whether the baby lives or dies o AJapanese baby has a 96% chance of reaching 5 o Ababy in Sierra Leone has a 72% chance of making it to 5 • Point: multitude of social contexts play a role Sociology of Health: The Interaction between Society and Health • Ultimately, this lecture is focused on the sociology of health at the international and national levels – keeping an eye towards the influence of inequality, ethnicity, gender, and other social influences • Health in response to o Political Change (i.e. Egypt: individual changes such as poverty and living change) o Disasters o Policy (i.e. Canada: change in windmill’s/power; could improve air pollution yet ‘apparently’) Predicting Health Status • Two essential health predictors o Life expectancy: how long people are living o Infant/child mortality rates Week 2 Lecture 3 o Can help us determine the sanitation of one country to another. • Important to note: in understanding the influence of social conditions, it can be hard to apply at the individual level o Take BMI for example: obesity versus muscle mass; can confuse the two for both (one healthy while one is not) can show dangers in BMI Population Growth th • The US Census Bureau on July 30 , 2012 estimated the total population of the World as 7,029,572,429 • It predicts that, with an increase of just over 1% per year, it will increase to 9 billion by 2045 Religion and Population Growth • Roman Catholic Church values – forbidding abortion and artificial contraception o Outcomes in South American and in sub-SaharanAfrica • Economist, Julian Simon, challenges the biologist, Paul Ehrlich o Ehrlich thought we would have depleted our sources by now and cause tension and mass inequality. Simons thought that we would find a way to manage our resources and economy; we react to population growth Poverty • Approximately 81% of the world’s population live in developing (poor) countries • One billion people live on less than one dollar per day • Poverty’s impact on health o Lack of safe water o Lack of environmental sanitation o Inadequate diet o Lack of secure housing o Lack of basic education o No access to medication and health care • Example: Sub-Saharan Africa o Country conditions generate risk of HIV/AIDS, which in turn worsens chances for economic recovery o Orphan epidemic • Acomplicated case however such as the human and water access example o Water Example: getting water can be extremely dangerous; a cup of water can kill someone, yet the water is hard to contain. People can catch worms, choleric, etc. Chlorine used to decontaminate it but not many people in Kenya use the chlorine Gender Differences • In industrialized countries, women live longer, but also have poorer health...suffering more chronic and acute illness • In less developed countries, men live longer than women • Statistics are from Western Culture o Women are twice as likely to suffer from depression as are men Week 2 Lecture 3 o Men are more likely to suffer from alcoholism Norms and Inequality • Not all differences between men and women imply inequity • Gender Inequalities: differences between men and women that systemically empower one group to the detriment of the other • Examples o Awoman cannot receive needed health care because norms in her community prevent her from travelling alone to a clinic o Ateenage boy dies in an accident because of trying to live up to
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