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Lecture 8

Health Psychology Lecture 8.docx

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Scotney Evans

Week 4 Lecture 8 Friday January 31 , 2014 Health Psychology Chronic Disease and the Role of Psychology Chronic Illness: Cancer • Often called a lifestyle disease o 2/3 of cancer deaths associated with lifestyle factors. Psychosocial factors implicated in the onset of cancer include personality, stress, coping style, smoking habits (~30% of cancer deaths), diet, occupation (~4% of cancer), and UV exposure (~90% of skin cancers) o Smoking and diet are the two leading behavioral risk factors for cancer o Can’t always pull out causality for cancers but we can pull out lifestyle behaviors Chronic Illness:Arthritis • Major symptoms ofArthritis is pain – can lead to lower activity, higher depression, psychosocial costs (don’t experience as much social interactions) • Coping and management of arthritis are affected by: o Behavioral pain coping o Stressful events o Social support o Culture specific coping strategies o Severity of pain o Level of functional impairment Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) • Psychological Impact o Embarrassment, stigma, social isolation o Affects a person’s self-concept, body image, sexuality, and lifestyle o Particularly difficult for children and young adults Key Questions regarding Psychology and Chronic Illness • Do psychological states and treatment influence: o Disease progress o Psychological well-being o Health related behaviors • **Don’t need to know specific of slides above; mainly a demonstration to show how chronic illness and psychology are intertwined CBT and Arthritis • Cognitive-behavioral interventions often used in addition to anti-inflammatory meds and rest o Enhancement of perceived self-efficacy o Optimism o Relearning meaning of pain Social Support Week 4 Lecture 8 Friday January 31 , 2014 • Research suggests that cancer patients who are married survive longer than unmarried patients (Goodwin e al., 1987) • Support groups o Opportunity for downward comparison s (with worse off patients) and upward comparisons (with patients successfully coping) o Both downward and upward comparisons can be used positively o Negative Impacts to Social Groups and Marriage Study: not all things are related to the idea of social support • Edwards et al. (2004) reported a systematic review of psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer. The effects of the intervention on survival were not statistically significant • Spouse anxiety, depression and perceived control were correlated with patient psychosocial adjustment to illness even when patient anxiety and depression were kept constant (Moser & Dracup) Take Home Message • There are relatively few biomedical studies that reveal ways that psychological treatments or perspectives positively influences disease outcome o The research is relatively inconsistent and undecided; more work needs to be done here, particularly with cancer • There is plenty of evidence that health-related quality of life and psychological health can improve o Ex.Anxiety, pain, distress • Psychological research can also improve our understanding of how to promote health behaviors Health Psychology Part II Psychological and Social Reaction to Chronic Illness Adjusting to Cancer • Coping with physical limitations o Pain and discomfort o Down regulation of immune system o Fatigue • Treatment-Related Problems o Cosmetic problems o Body image concerns o Use of prosthesis o Conditioned nausea and immune suppression • More than one-third of canc
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