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Sport Psychology Notes

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Amy Gayman

Introduction 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM Define Sport Psych  “…the scientific study of ppl & their behaviours in sport & exercise activities & the practical application of that knowledge.” –Weinburg & Gould, 2003  sub-discipline of sport sciences  branch of psychology Aims of Sport Psych  Study effect of psychological factors on sport participation & performance  Sport participation & performance on psychological development & well-being o Ex) kids & exercise & its effects on their academics Relate to field, Overview Differentiate Education & Clinical/counseling orientations  Studies mental processes & behaviour  Focus on the individual rather than general society Positive Psychology  Traditionally, psychology has focused on the negative of illness, psychopathology, & disease  +ve Psych aims to enhance human functioning & make normal life fulfilling  examines well-being, satisfaction, strengths, talents, fulfillment, pleasure & happiness  similarly, sport & exercise specialists enhance: o performance, social & physical well-being, life satisfaction & positive emotions ABC‟s of Sport Psychology (“umbrella”)  Affect (emotion) o Anxiety, anger, self-esteem, motivation, confidence, depression  Behaviour (action) o Performance, adherence (more than mere attendance), drug use, alcohol abuse, eating disorders, aggression, coping, communication  Cognition (thought) o Self-talk, imagery, body image, attributions (way we explain the situation)  Often occur simultaneously or effect interchangeably Populations Studied  Male/female athletes  Elite/developing athletes  Competitive/recreational  Team/individual sport athletes  Children/adolescents/adults/elderly  Able-bodied/athletes with disabilities  Athletes from ethnic/cultural backgrounds Use of Research & Theory  studies describe, predict, explain, change affect, behaviour, & cognition to: o (manipulate the ABC‟s) o enhance performance o improve experiences in sport and QOL o reach athletic potential o attain personal enrichment (character building) o achieve personal growth o overall, Focus on performance enhancement & personal excellence Distinguish Careers  Consultants: research, teach, consult Training Requirements  No regulatory body? (determine weather behaviour right or wrong, can strip license) No body regulating the practice or behaviour of sport consultants  Law prohibits use of term “psychologist”, must be registered as so for the province of Ontario  AASP o Association for Applied Sport Psychology  Created standards of competency, certification program, & registry…..not necessary to practice  SCAPPs (French acronym) o Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning & Sport Psychology  Not mandatory to practice  No consequences for incompetent, unskilled, uneducated “consultants”  NASPSPA o North American Society for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity Ethical issues relevant to consulting  Competence o Only provide services qualified to provide  Knowing When to refer o Recognize limits of qualifications/abilities and suppress pride to refer and acquire proper assistance Past Trends st  Norman Triplett: 1 to conduct research in the area 1897 o His Topic: Effect on cyclists when others are watching…social facilitation o Results: did better with viewers st  Coleman Griffith: established 1 sport psych lab o Physical & psychological effect on performance o Regarded as father of North American Sport Psych!!!!  Bruce Ogilvie: 1 sport psychology consultant 1960 st o 1 to apply lab concepts in the field o Book: “Problem athletes, and how to handle them”  Academic Sport Psychology established mid 60‟s o Distinguished as a discipline under Phys Ed…before was in motor learning  Sport Psychology Associations Developed 1967 o AASP, SCAPPS, NASPSPA o Network researchers together  1 Sport Psychology Journals Published 1979 Textbook Readings!  Dr. AlBert Carron o Modern founder of exercise/sport psychology in Canada o Expert on group cohesion/dynamics  Terry Orlick o Influential sport psychology researcher that wrote “In Pursuit of Excellence”  Development of programs & course at University of Alberta Present Trends  Growing interest  Increasing demand for services  Development of mental training registries  Certification programs for consultants Future trends  Accreditation of grad programs o Agency, governing body, assesses programs to make sure of preparation and qualifications achieved, preparation to fulfill standards  Research on special populations o High level athletes…collegiate athletes o Moved to other aspects…Paralympic, ethnicity, youth, elderly  Interdisciplinary, collaborative research o Sociology, biology, physiology, psychology…etc all working on the same topic, such as burnout  Apply knowledge to other areas o Performance consultant  business people…goal setting  army….anxiety, focus  health care…rehabilitation settings  increase in regulatory bodies, & training in clinical/counseling psych  online consulting o skype, email, anywhere!!! o +ve: convenient against travelling, easy access, flexibility, shy (over email), comfortable (home VS office) o –Ve: miscommunication, time consuming to finish convo, errors of spellcheck, identity issues (fraud), possible access issues, no physical contact, understanding issues, no cues for body language, online info….who has access to it?!?(security issues)  increased specialization, diversification, research, and teaching opportunities regarding cancer, stroke, obesity, aging, well-being, Parkinson‟s disease, etc. Personality 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM 1) What are My unique Characteristics? 2) What characteristics would we see in Sport Setting 3) Do the characteristics differ in classroom, home, social setting? Popular Personality Traits  Extroverted  Anxious  Tense  Hostile/angry  Independent  Competitive  Tough minded  Conscientious  Impulsive  Relaxed  Introverted  Passive  Deliberate Personality Defined  “a dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that creates a person‟s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts, & feelings” (Carver & Scheier, 2000)  some characteristics remain in all settings, generally adapt but relatively similar State Vs Trait  State o Response specific to a particular sit‟n & moment in time o Dynamic o EX) quiet in class but life of party (comfortability in setting) o How do you feel “Right Now”?  Trait o Typical responses across sit‟ns & over time o Stable o How do you feel “Generally”?  How can personality include the consistent ways an indiv behaves, thinks, feels but change in certain sit‟ns??  Why Consistent but not in all situations? o Generally stable but able to adapt Personality‟s Important Features  A distinct set of characteristics (makes us unique!)  Generally stable over time 9structure allows us to fun‟ct  Can adapt to sit‟ns (flexibility allows us to learn)  Influences thoughts, feelings,& actions Components of Personality (Hollander)  Explains how personality can be dynamic/stable  3 Components: 1)Psychological Core o Stable, deepest level values, attitudes, memories, self- perceptions o 2)Typical Responses o Somewhat stable usual rxn to sit‟n o Can reflect psychological 3)Role Related Behaviour o Dynamic, changing based on role expectation & sit‟n Personality Theories  Psychodynamic Theory (Freud) o Emphasizes whole person o Unconscious instincts influence behaviour o Personality = dynamic set of process in conflict  Iceberg: (unconscious/preconscious/conscious) o 3 Components to personality  Id: pleasure-seeking  I want candy and I want it now!  Ego: reality-orientated  You get what you get and you don‟t get upset  Superego: conscience  Mediates btwn id and ego o Personality is how the conflict is resolved o Discusses our NEED…need to be aggressive…reality: can do so in sport  Humanistic Approach (Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs) o Focuses on human growth & striving o Can not move up pyramid until needs met o Self-Actualization o Esteem Needs o Social Needs o Safety Needs o Physiological Needs o Characteristics of self actualizes  Content  Peak-performance (been the best they could be)  Spontaneous  Autonomous (independent)  Accepting  Unhostile humour (able to laugh at own expense)  Reality-centred  Peak experiences (rare/exceptional/everything came easily)  What humans can be, they must be, to reach self- actualization  Social Learning Theory (Bandura & Hull) o Personality shaped by enviro o Interaction btwn person-enviro key o Learn behaviour thru:  Modeling (observation)  Reinforcement/Punishment  Trait Approach o Personality=traits people possess o Traits are stable & influence behaviour o Focuses on personal characteristics  Highly predictable based on traits in all settings o Minimizes role of enviro & sit‟n o Big 5:  Extroversion/Introversion  Neuroticism  Tense, nervous, anxiety  Conscientiousness  Self-disciplined, achiever  Openness  Curious, original, flexible  Agreeableness  Easygoing, amiable, positive  Interactionist Approach o Commonly accepted today o Recognizes complexity of personality o Behaviour result of person-sit‟n interaction o Behaviour broken into:  Disposition  Traits  Social Ecology  Cultural systems & practices  Characteristic Adaptations  Goals, values, coping, strategies  Integrative Life Narratives  Stories that give life meaning I See Myself as Someone Who Is!!!!!! Personality Test 1) 44 2) 42 3) 4 4) 4 5) 4 6) 51 7) 2 8) 42 9) 15 10) 5 11) 33 12) 3 13) 4 14) 5 15) 4 16) 44 17) 2 18) 3 19) 5 20) 5 21) 42 22) 3 23) 42 24) 24 25) 4 26) 2 27) 3 28) 4 29) 5 30) 5 31) 42 32) 2 33) 3 34) 24 35) 42 36) 2 37) 42 38) 2 39) 5 40) 4 41) 3 42) 2 43) 51 44) 2 extraversion 20 agreeableness 23 conscientiousness 25 neuroticism 37 openness 38 Personality Assessment  Many different questionaires/inventories  Some identify single traits or others a combination  Developed for general, clinical, or athletic populations  Sport-specific measures best predicators BC they consider both sit‟n & athletes personality  Use in Sports o Screen athletes o Predict performance o Determine „right‟ personality profile o Team selection o Assign positions or playing status Ethics for Personality Tests  Should be administered by trained professionals  Test should be valid & reliable  All tests have some measurement error o Age appropriate, cultural based  Performance not entirely influenced by traits (environment)  Should also assess physical performance, coach evals, & level of play  Athletes may compensate for lack of some traits  Scales that assess specific traits (VS global personality) are more accurate…info should be used to gain insight into players & identity strengths/weaknesses to develop psychological training programs Personality Research: Personality-Performance Relationship  Is there an Athletic Personality o Athlete VS non-athletes  No consistent personality profile for athletes  Does personality influence type of sport played? o Indiv VS Team sport  Team sport athletes tend to be more extraverted, dependent, & anxious  Largely under studied o Can we predict sport success from personality?  Success  Great variability in personality traits seen at lower levels of sport participation  Therefore, can‟t predict early on based on personality  When look at highest levels/elite, see difference between lower levels due to natural selection, see a profile emerge for elite athlese  Do need certain traits, but born with it or learned?  Increasing homogeneity as athletic level increases  Successful athletes have combo of traits & psychological skills:  More motivated  Confident  Able to control anxiety & concentrate  Use self-talk & imagery Types of Perfectionism  Maladaptive Perfectionism (aka Neurotic) o High standards (very difficult to achieve) o Over critical (mistake focused) o Fear criticism o Ego motivated (compare to others. Success=beat others) o Avoid failure o Doubt competence o Associated with:  Frustration  Burn out  Mental illness (eating disorders, depression)  Substance abuse (performance enhancing drugs)  No risk taking leaves no room for improvement  High stress  High level of drop out/ remain at lower level  Hostility  Negative affect  Poor coping  Training through injuries  Competitive anxiety  Decreased performance (not focused on task, focused on mistakes)  Adaptive Perfectionism o Realistic goals (high standards in reason) o Self-discipline o Accept limitations (compare to self, not others) o Accept imperfection o Task achievement motivation o Achievement striving o Associated With:  Personal growth to fulfill potential  Coping  Learn from mistakes and MOVE ON!  More success, more focused, less burn out/drop out  More dynamic/creative to problem solving  Self-confidence  More Effort  Positive affect  Increase in training performance Research  Parental influenced perfectionism o Modeling picked up or born with it?  Environmental influence on perfectionism Perfectionism in Athletes Read Personality Types  Skip mental toughness Motivation 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM Definition  The internal/external forces that produce the initiation, direction, & persistence of behaviour Components of Motivation  Direction o Attraction to participate in an activity  Intensity o Effort exerted in an activity…”the fire within”  Persistence o Maintenance of involvement & effort Types of Motivation  Intrinsic o Motivation from internal source  Enjoyment, learning, pride, experience, sense of accomplishment  Extrinsic o Motivation from external source  Awards, praise, money, prestige, fear Sources of Motivation  Behavioural Approach o Focuses on role of enviro & stresses learning o How can we motivate behaviour? o Aims at changing, then maintaining behaviour o Operant Conditioning  Associate behaviour with consequences through:  Reinforcement = stimulus, event, condition increases behaviour, may be +ve (add factor) or –ve (remove factor)  Punishment = -ve condition that decreases behaviour, may present something –ve or remove something +ve o Vicarious Conditioning  Learn behaviour by watching others  See consequences for appropriate/inappropriate responses o Operant Strategies  Allow for development & maintenance of behaviour  used by the indiv  ex) log book  Cognitive Approach o Focuses on role of indiv o Ppl active interpreters of info o Looks at thought patterns/cognitive habits o Explains how 2 ppl in same enviro can experience diff motivation o Aims to change thinking by recognizing biases, automatic thoughts, core beliefs, challenging them, & altering them to be realistic  Cognitive-Behavioural Approach o Influence of thought as well as social/physical enviro on behaviour regulation o Explore how thought affects emotion & behaviour & how behaviour influences thoughts & emotions o ------------ o Thought---Behaviour o  Emotion- o explains how various sit‟ns/indiv thought patterns account for differences in motivation Theories towards Motivation (compare/contrast)  Self-Efficacy o Beliefs in one‟s capabilities to organize & execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments (Bandura 1977) o Situational-specefic confidence o Indiv‟s perception of ability is Key! o Personal/situational factors influence perceived ability & in turn, self-efficacy o 4 Sources of info (of our ability): (Bandura)  Enactive Mastery Experience  Previously experienced success  Provide opportunities for success  Vicarious Experience  Similar ppl are successful  Verbal Persuasion  Statements communicate that you can succeed  “you can do it!!!”  Physiological & Affective States  Physical/emotional cues affects ability  Anxious, fatigue, complain/excuses  Self-Determination Theory ………(in text) o “Integrated” theory o views motivation as multi-dimensional o proposed a motivation continuum No Motivation ---------Extrinsic Motivation ------------->Intrinsic Motivation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amotivation External RegIntrojected RegulatiIdentified RegulaIntegrated RegulaInternal Motivation Driven by rewardemotions, feelingsit‟s important, valfrom extrinsic feels good avoid punishmentfor social approvdo so to meet other gto intrinsic self-fulfilling o Theory assumes 3 basic needs:  Autonomy  Choice/control over own behaviour  Competence  Handle challenges/achieve outcomes  Relatedness  Connect with others/feel involved  Extent these 3 met, determines type of motivation  Achievement Goal Theory o Not what the goals were, but if they were met/not met o Influence of perceived competence/definitions of success/failure on motivation o 3 Factors (sub points can intermingle, not always only one)  Disposition (stable)  Task goal orientated: focus on mastery/self- improvement  Ego goal orientated: focus on beating others  Motivational Climate  Mastery: enviro stresses mastery, learning improvement, effort  Competitive: enviro stresses competition, winning  Rather than working together, encouraging eachother, it‟s winning at all costs over team mates  Psychological State (unstable)  Task Involvement: success=mastery, learning, improvement  Ego Involvement: success=winning, superior performance  Theory of Competence Motivation o Influence of self-perception on motivation  (notice trend on “self”) o refers to belief about ability  Competence  Deal with challenges/achieve outcomes  Control  Can we Learn & preform skills o Higher perceptions = greater effort, longer persistence & more positive emotions o Works directly or thru emotion o Mastery attempts: sporting choices, intensity persistence o Feedback: self VS others affects competence  Sport Commitment Model o Must be committed to succeed o Sport Commitment is : the psychological state representing the desire/resolve to continue sport participation” o Model focuses on persistence o Focuses on the different reasons why athletes persist o Explains obligated & accepted participation o 6 Factors: o Enjoyment  Positive emotions associated with it  Strongest factor o Involvement Alternatives  Appealing for other activities  To hang out with friends or follow a lover, towards or away from sports (videogames) o Involvement Opportunities  Benefits of involvement  Skill development, make friends, get fit, travel o Personal Investment  Resources previously devoted  Money, driving, time/effort o Social Constraints  Obligated due to pressure, expectations, norms o Social Support  Significant others‟ encouragement & assistance Trans theoretical, planned behaviour not on midterm, will get back to it Anxiety 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM Arousal  Psychological & physiological activation of body  Continuum (deep sleep---frenzy)  Neither good/bad Anxiety  Emotional/bodily response  (worrying, apprehension) (activation of Autonomic NS)  result of cognitive appraisal o judgment of stimulus o Ex) fire alarm not alarming, competition (regional VS provincial VS national)  within continuum  Multi-dimensional Characteristics of Anxiety  Result of cognitive appraisal of stimulus/sit‟n  Distinct physiology response (sweaty palms)  Emotion experienced across cultures (EX)excited, angry, anxious, sad)  Identified by certain facial expressions  Associated with certain action tendencies Dimensions of Anxiety  State Anxiety o Sit‟n-specific o Changes depending on context  Trait Anxiety o Stable part of personality o General tendency in sit‟ns o Global TA: anxious across ALL sit‟ns o Competitive TA: anxiety + competition o Social Physique Anxiety: anxiety + exercise/sport  Both involve: o Cognitive Anxiety  Mental component of anxiety  Worries, concern, difficulty concentrating o Somatic anxiety  Perception of physical anxiety  Butterfly‟s, increased HR, increased need for bathroom, respiration, muscle tension Anxiety-Performance Relationship  Inverted-U Theory o Curvilinerar relationship o Suggests optimal level of arousal o Arousal beneficial to certain pnt o General for everyone….not individualized o Limitations:  Too simplistic (smooth relationship)  Implies smooth relationship for everyone  Failed to accurately predict performance  Not multi-dimensional as anxiety is  Fails to explain effect of arousal on performance  Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF; Hanin) o Presumes optimal level o Recognizes influence of individual o Enhance performance by identifying optimal zone & teaching athletes how to stay within it o Low IZOF: calm, relaxed o High IZOF: excited, energetic o Limitations:  Mixed results in literature  Sit‟n factors may influence  Other variables that may influence  May not have to be in zone to do well  Catastrophe Theory (Fazey/Hardy) o Looks at interrelationship btwn cognitive anxiety, somatic A, & performance o Low cognitive anxiety = inverted-U relationship o Moderate cognitive anxiety = distorted inverted-u (performance drop) o High cognitive anxiety = extremely distorted inverted-u (bigger performance drop) o Low physiological arousal; increases in cog anxiety = better performance o High physiological arousal; increases in cog anxiety = catastrophic drop in performance  Directionality Theory (jones) o Intensity not as important as direction of perceptions of anxiety o Focuses on interpretation o Anxiety may be facilitative or debilitative depending on evaluation relative to performance o Directionality better predictor of performance o Elite athletes perceive anxiety emotions/symptoms as facilitative o Hedonic tone: pleasant or unpleasant o Direction Facilitative Debilitative pleasant Motivated Calm Focused Serene Energetic Relaxed Hedonic Secure Cheerful Tone determined pleased unpleasant Tense Tired Nervous Uncertain Aggressive Unconfident enraged unfocused o Attention: concentration of mental effort on sensory or mental events. Includes: Attentional Focus  Focusing on relevant cues in enviro o Selective Attention  Ability to focus on relevant stimuli  “gate out” , block out irrelevant cues  Why?  To fun‟t effectively  Avoid being overwhelmed  Attend to what‟s relevant  Maintain focus over time o Importance?  Easy to become distracted  Loss of focus may impair performance  Being aware of sit‟n (situational Awareness) o Ability to understand what is occurring in enviro o Assess game situation o Occurs under pressure/time constraints o Importance?  Facilitates decision making  Shifting focus when necessary (Shifting Attention) o Ability to shift, scope, & focus o Importance?  Helps adapt to changing situation Types of Attention  Width o Broad  Attend to multiple cues simultaneously  Sports where sit‟ns change quickly  Gymnastics, team sports to make plays o Narrow  Attend to only 1-2 cues simultaneously  Sports where you concentrate on one thing  Make a pass just to one person  Direction o External  Focus directed to outward enviro  Attention on things/ppl/objects  With broad = assess….view  With narrow = perform o Internal  Attention on thoughts/feelings  With broad = analyze….decision  With narrow = rehearse Influence of Anxiety on Attention  Cue Utilization Theory o Increase arousal = attention narrowing o Narrowing facilitates selective attention  Under aroused = attend to all cues  Optimal arousal = gate out irrelevant cues  Over aroused = ignore relevant cues Low Moderate High Arousal Level Cognitive Processes  Controlled Processing o Conscious thought process o Appraise info & select response o Information processed serially o Requires attention, effort, awareness o Deliberate, slow, effortful  One after the other  Broken into parts to slowly learn to perform  Automatic Processing o Unconscious thought process o Less reliance on attention resources o Fluent mov‟t, seems effortless o Reduced physiological cost  Less effort o Associated with skilled performances  Controlled processes become automatic over time as they are well learned Consequences of Anxiety  Possible –ve influence by interfering with cognitive-informational processes & motor skill ability  Essentially effects decision making and performance  Cognitive affects o Attention narrows, don‟t attend to important task relevant cues; shift to conscious, controlled processing  Physiological Affects o Increase muscle tension decreasing muscle control & coordination making it difficult to perform mov‟t fluidly  Less enjoyment  Vulnerable to injury  More likely to burn out  Dropout more often Attention Control  Athletes must concentrate/maintain focus to: o Complete complex tasks o Attend to relevant internal/external cues o Avoid distraction o Perform well  Skill acquired thru training & practice Anxiety & Over arousal Strategies  Determine optimal arousal level  Perspective/appraisal of anxiety symptoms o Facilitative or debilitative  Techniques/strategies and psychological methods o Deep breathing  Reduce muscle tension/anxiety  Carries oxygen, removes waste in blood o Progressive Relaxation  Identify tension, relax by contracting & releasing o Meditation  Focus on single thought/sound/object (mental device), don‟t stop thoughts but re-direct to mental device o Autogenic Training  Focus on warmth & heaviness in limbness Increase Arousal  Pep Talk o Inspirational speech to inspire/energize  Bulletin Boards o Meaningful slogans, phrases, quotes, goals  Pre-Competitive Workouts o Light physical activity can be energizing  Breathing o Increase rhythm/imagine “energy in, fatigue out”  Music o Depends on pace/intensity  Imagery o Energizing scene Stress 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM Stress  Stimulant o External o Internal  Response o Reaction o Feeling  Process o Situation o Reaction  Consider role of indiv & his/her perception Psychological Concerns  Competitive stress, self-doubt, fear of injury, mental readiness Physical Concerns  Injury, body weight, physical inactivity, physical readiness to perform Social Concerns  -ve relationships, lack of attention, coaching changes, other‟s expectations Enviro Concerns  Financial stress, media demands Career & Life Direction Concerns  Career, school, work Types of Stressors  Chronic o Long-term, ongoing  Acute o Short-term, occur suddenly  Expected o predictable  Unexpected o Unpredictable  Competitive  Non-Competitive Main Effect Model  +ve relationship btwn stress & -ve outcomes o stress increases = -ve outcomes increases  Distress (-ve) o Distress I (too much) o Distress II (too little)  Eustress (+ve) o o Eustress o o o Distress II Distress I o o Transactional Model  Person-enviro interaction  Indiv perception key!  Cognitive Appraisal o Evaluation process o Determines if stimulus become stressor o Determines if stress process continues o 2 types of Appraisals  Primary Appraisal  Asses stimuli in enviro  Am I in trouble or being benefited by this event now, in the future, & in what way a. Irrelevant (no meaning/effect) b. Benign-Positive (viewed +ve) i. Stress response stops if appraised as first 2 c. Stressful (viewed –ve) i. Harm/loss-damage occurred ii. Threat-anticipate harm/loss iii. Challenge-potential for gain but must still cope  Secondary Appraisal  Assess coping ability  Do I have the resources/capabilities i. Coping Options 1. Deep breathing 2. Asking for help 3. Positive thinking ii. Outcome Expectancy (belief behaviour will lead to positive outcome) iii. Efficacy Expectation (belief to execute behaviour successfully)  Appraisal Term Issues  Implies importance over appraisals  Doesn‟t indicate content  Renamed Stimulus appraisal VS coping appraisal  Suggests sense of time  Primary before secondary Emotional Response  Emotion important to understand stress!!!!check textbook  Many athletes react –vely to injury o Cite feelings of frustration, depression, anger, fear, confusion o Overtime feelings change with rehab and back to play      –ve emotions   injury rehab return   Some athletes may view injury +vely Cognitive Appraisal Model  Different responses to injury  Rxn +ve/-ve depending on interpretation  Sit‟n/personal factors influence cognitive appraisal which effects emotional response and behavioural rxn  appraisal important determinant of emotional/behavioural rxns  process of appraisal ongoing through rehab/return to sport (cyclical, dynamic)  explains different rxns  considers influencing factors o personal factors: age, type of injury, severity, pain tolerance, personality, athletic identity, recovery status o sit‟n factors: level of competition, playing status, accessibility to rehab, rehab enviro, social support, time of season o spider web of factors that effect each other and change over time Coping  Cognitive/behavioral efforts to decrease internal/external demands appraised as taxing/exceeding the resources of the person  Problem-Focused Coping (confrontational) (PFC) o Efforts to solve problem  Directed internally (cognitive): alter thinking/motivation  Directed externally (behavioral): alter enviro  Emotional-Focuses Coping (EFC) o Efforts to maintain emotional equilibrium o Not dealing with the sit‟n itself, mearly adjusting appraisal  Cognitive efforts (change perception to feel better)  Check grades of peers  Behavioural efforts (avoid thoughts/feelings)  Distract self Strategies VS Styles  Oftern use both PCF & ECF  Coping styles = dispositional tendency o Go getters vs avoiders  Coping strategies = sit‟n specific use  “The Matching Hypothesis” o Coping style should fit/match stressor, “Goodness of Fit”  PFC = controllable stressor  EFC = uncontrollable stressor Coping VS Outcomes  Coping = conscious/unconscious effort, any effort regardless if the outcome is good or bad o Substance abuse to escape, bulimia for image Mental Toughness 1/8/2013 9:30:00 AM Definitions  No universal definition  “the natural or developed psychological edge…that enables you to cope better than your competitors with the demands of performance…& to remain more determined, focused, confident, and in control” --(Jones, Hanton & Connaugton,2002)  Example of guy who reached top of category for weight, had no competition. Was okay to move weight class, but still no competition, asked to change weight class and age group, freaked out, turned down the offer (thought older-more experienced, didn‟t stand a chance)  Video of tiger woods o Instill in children o Dad would Drop bag when Woods prepped for swing o Ways to mess with him Sport Specific Stressors  Limited because excluding numerous stressors (school, relationships), but this is where most research focuses  Self-Presentation o Concerned about –ve impressions  Friends, family in crowd, be successful o Outfits  Glamorous, revealing, eye-catching, look fit/lean o Example of first date  Effort put in it to present self certain way  Competitive Anxiety o Doubt, worry, fear, competence, failure  Environmental Concerns o Unfamiliar with venue, weather conditions, artificial/real grass field, clay tennis court  Competition Factors o Tournaments, competitor  Poor Performance o Set on faults in game, worry about slump  Evaluative Others o Scouts, judges, coaches  Psycho-Emotional Concerns o Frustration, maintaining momentum  Performance Challenges o Course types, challenging shots, controlling shot distance, equipment malfunctions (hockey stick or chin-strap breaks, pants rip/fall down  Training Stress o Tough, injured, inability to train well, illness, fatigue  Critical to understand each type, but still individual specific Effective Coping in Sport  Thinking Ahead o preparation  Being Relaxed o Get in zone  +ve Self-Talk  Active Coping o AKA Problem-focused coping  Planning o Pre-performance plans o What could go wrong  Following A Routine  Optimizing Emotions o Cognitive-symatic? Effect on performance o Directionality  Rationalizing o Rationalize experience  Seeking Social Support o Difficult to ask for it o Practical ($) VS emotional (someone to talk to) Characteristics/Skills Associated  Is MT a personality factor?? o See Personality notes for Personality definition (added below)  “a dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that creates a person‟s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts, & feelings” --(carver & Scheier, 2000)  Is MT motivational factor?? o See Motivation notes for Motivation definition (added below)  “The internal/external forces that produce the initiation, direction, & persistence of behaviour  Combination of psychological characteristics & psychological skills that athletes are not only better at achieving but do so on a consistent basis: o Increased control/ better ability to cope o Competitiveness o Concentration o Confidence o Commitment o Determination o Desire o Focus o Persistence/determination o Optimism Mental toughness…never say die  “I felt like I was in a good place mentally, I wasn‟t too nervous. I was focused. I knew I had to ski an aggressive run if I wanted to medal. This is probably the bumpiest course I‟ve ever run, and I think that‟s the worst thing you can have for a shin injury, definitely a challenge just to make it down, but I was focused, determined and I just tried not to focus on the pain” ----Lindsey Vonn o gold medalist Vancouver 2010 Olympic games o Video of her talking about mental toughness (Lindsey Vonn batting shin injury)  She‟s realistic about what she has to face  Coping with physiotherapy (active coping)  Discussed previous injury, this being the worse, but I‟ve overcome all the rest so optimistic about overcoming this injury (Enactive mastery experience concept = previous experience with success, from motivation section) Born Innate Trait or Influenced by Environmental Factors??  Born with it, but can be developed and must be maintained either way Development of MT  Skill that can be learned/cultivated  MT: Manipulative Factors: o Motivational climate  Effected by coaches, peers, parents  MT develops with:
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