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Todd Ferretti

September 18, 2012 PS 366 Outline  Psycholinguistic Methods  Fundamentals of Psycholinguistics o Four Pervasive properties  Duality of patterning  Morphology  Phrase structure  Linguistic productivity o Fundamental Components of Language System  Sentence—phrase—word—morpheme—phoneme o Duality of Patterning  At one level there is a large number of meaningful elements  At another level there is a small number of meaningless elements that form words  Universal property of language  2 levels  Small number of basic/meaningless sounds o Phonemes  Large number of meaningful sounds o Words o Phonology  Phones: speech sounds that are physically specifiable  Pill—spill  Aspiration o Puff of air  Indicated by []  Phonemes: smallest differences in sound influencing meaning  Big—dig  Categories of phones  Indicated by //  Allophones: Different phones that are understood as the same phoneme in a language  Languages have different phonemes  Phonetics: the study of speech sounds  Articulatory (how sound is made)  Auditory/Perceptual ( how sounds are perceived )  Acoustic (sound waveform and physical properties )  Phonology: the sound system of language, rules of how phonemes may be arranged in a word o Distinctive Feature Theory  Distinct if presence or absence distinguished speech sound from other sound  Binary contrast  + if present  - if absent  Ex. Voicing: whether or not vocal cords are vibrating when air passes  When errors are made, incorrectly hear a sound that is similar to target sound o Morphology  Morpheme: smallest unit of linguistic meaning  Morphology: study of the structure of words  Morphological rules: rules for combining morphemes to form words  Free Morphemes: units of meaning that do not have to be attached to words  Bound Morphemes (gramattical): attached to word, never alone  Independence  Derivational Morphology  Changes to words that alter meaning  Develop, development, developmental  Inflectional Morphology  Changes to words that do not alter their meaning  Kissing, kissed o Major categories of English Morphology  Number  Singular or plural  Person  First, second third o Verb Inflectional Morphology  Tenses  Indexes time of speaking in relation to time of event  Aspect  Indexes internal temporal properties of event o Verb Aspect and Event Structure  Imperfect – ongoing (was handing)  Perfective – completed (handed)  Perfect – completed (had handed) o Phrase Structure  Different ams structures that have important elements of meaning  Rules  NP- noun phrase  VP- verb phrase  Rewrite rules o How each constituent in a phrase can be expanded  Lexical insertion rules o Put words in the structure that has been built  Derivation: the entire sequence of rules that produce a sentence  Rewrite rules also recursive o A symbol can appear on both sides of the rule equation o No limit for embedding of sentences- productivity  Rules help determine who is doing what to whom  95% of English sentences have this structure o NP, V, NP ( main clause) o First noun is agent o Second is the patient o Word Order Constraints
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