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September 28.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

September 28, 2012 PS 366 Word Recognition Factors that Influence Word Recognition 1. Word Frequency effect a. The more often you see in life the easier to recognize b. Phoneme monitoring i. Monitoring times increased slightly after a low frequency word 2. Length Effects a. Longer word needs more time b. Longer to pronounce c. Influenced by letters, syllables, and phonemes 3. Repetition Priming a. Faster if the word has been viewed recently b. Better for high frequency words 4. Neighborhood Effects a. Some words have a large number of other words that look and sound like them b. Mine, pine, line c. The number of words that can be created by changing one letter of target word i. Larger size= faster 5. Over-regularization Errors a. Make more errors iD words with less probable sequences b. Trum is read as Drum c. Perceive input as being more regular 6. Frequency-by-regularity Interaction a. High frequency i. People take just as long to recognize regular and irregular b. Low frequency i. People pronounce regular words faster than irregular 7. Morphological Complexity a. More complex prefixes and suffixes are more difficult to recognize i. Separate affixes from root, then put back together ii. Single morphemes accessed directly iii. HF won’t take as long 8. Word Superiority Effect a. More accurate ID letters if they appear within a word rather than alone 9. Word Concreteness and Imagery a. Easier to recall in memory test b. Visual stimulus as well 10. Lexical Amibiguity a. Relationship between word form and meaning is not one-to-one b. Homophones: pronounced the same but have different meanings c. Homographs: same spelling, but different meaning and pronunciations d. Dominant and subordinate meaning e. Ambiguous take longer to recognize 11. Phonological Variables a. Stress and intonantional patterns 12. Syntactic Category a. No difference of retrieval of high-versus low frequency closed class words b. Separate routes to retrieving words from different syntactic categories 13. Semantic Priming a.  Cross-Modal Lexical Decision o Related to meaning implied by context o Presented with contextually related word, inappropriate, and unrelated word during presentation of bugs  Respond more quickly for contextually appropriate and inappropriate o Presented with same words after 4 syllable delay  Now only respond quickly for contextually appropriate word  Till, Mross, Kintsch o People make lexical decision to words after different periods of time o Contextually relevant and irrelevant associates are activated early o Contextually relevant associate only meaning activated at 500ms and 1500 ms  Vu, Kellas, and Paul o People pronounced associates and unrelated words after the ambiguous word o Only relevant associate was activated early o Irrelevant associate was never activated o Importance of understanding thematic roles in sentence processing Models of Word Recognition  Differences o Relationship between lexical and conceptual knowledge  Independent vs interactive o How words are accessed  Direct/parallel vs serial o Whether word
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