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September 13.docx

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Todd Ferretti

September 13 PS 366  Definitions o Linguistics: the study of language, the rules that describe it and our knowledge about rules of language o Psycholinguistics: study of psychological psychological processes involved in language o How people understand and produce language  Historical Background o Wilhem Wundt  Sentence rather than word is primary unit of language o Cognitive view of speech production  Speech production as the transformation of a complete thought process into sequentially organized speech segments  Early History o Francis Galton  Word associations  Memories retrieved to words  Relationship between memory and language o Merigner and Mayer  Slips of the tongue  Insight into language production  Behavioiurism o John Watson—Skinner o No role for consciousness, introspection, mind o Objective and observable behaviour o Laws relating to stimulus conditions o Associative chain theory  A sentence is a chain of associations between words  Lang acquisition and use explained by reinforcement and conditioning  Family and environment correct errors  Chomsky o Productivity of Language  people produce and understand infinite sentences that we have not heard before  cannot be reduced to stimulus-response o Poverty of Stimulus argument  Info from lang given to children cannot account for complexity of language  Intuitive knowledge of Grammar o Words with few associations can still be syntactically acceptable  Notion of Linguistic Units (Constituents) o Discontinuous constituents show long-range dependencies among words in sentences  Comsky’s Impact o Fall of behaviourism, emergence of cognitive revolution o Study of lang insight into human mind o Attempt to test psychologaical implicaitons  New grammars  Role of innate mechanisms in acquisition  Linguistic Universal s  What is consistent across different languages  Linguistic information in psycholinguistic research  Early Modern Psycholinguistics o 70’s o Learn mental processes in production of language o Absorbed into cognitive psychology  Computational Metaphor o Mind uses rules to translate input into symbol o Cognition= symbolic processing   What is innate about language o There are some prerequisites enable us to acquire language  How much is innate?  Language Processes independent or interactive o Modular view  Self-contained set of processes  Inside and outside processes independent  Syntax independent from semantics  Serial approach o Interactive View  Different info interest at earliest point  Info from one stage influences at lower and higher levels  Parallel instead of serial processing o Bottom up Processing  Sensory input ends with representation  Lower step is never affected by a higher step in the process  Data driven o Top Down Processing  Concept driven, expectations  Word recognition ends with visual input  Higher levels influencing lower levels o Interactive Processing  Both top down and bottom up  Influences both ways  Do we need specific rules for language processing o Children learning past tense of verbs  Memorize the past tense form of a word  Add ed to end of word  Over-regularization errors  Children treat the verb as following the regular pattern o Pattern shows  Language learning is not just imitation  Not just instruction  Major Debate o Two View Points  Rule based/symbolic approaches: rules are built into language processes. Manipulate symbols by formal rules  Regular forms are produced by linguistic rules  Connectionist models/ Subsymbolic approach: irregular and regular forms of language have one single mechanism sensitive to statistical regularities  Generalized learning mechanisms in everyone  Cognitive Neuroscience o Relates brain function and anatomy to language o Relate brain-damage behaviour to normal models o Aphasia  Any impairment of language
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