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Lecture Notes.docx

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John Stephens

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Chapter 1-Clinical Psychology: An Introduction  APA Definition: “The field of Clinical Psychology integrates science, theory, and practice to understand, predict, and alleviate maladjustment, disability, and discomfort as well as to promote human adaptation, adjustment, and personal development. Clinical Psychology focuses on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioural aspects of human functioning across the life span, in varying cultures, and at all socioeconomic levels.”  Characteristics of Clinical Psychology: o Emphasis on science  Determinism  Empiricism –based on research; had been validated; more efficient  Hypothetical constructs-what are the issues that correspond with this person o Emphasis on maladjustment o Emphasis on individuals (nomethetic vs. idiographic)  Idiographic-based specifically on the case  Nomethetic-norm based o Emphasis on helping  Activities of Clinical Psychologists: o Research o Teaching o Psychotherapy o Psychological assessment o Consultation-look to other physicians if you are unsure or don’t specialize in the certain issues o Administration  Distinguishing Clinical Psychology from Related Professions o Psychiatry: people that prescribe medication; medical degree o Clinical Social Work: o Counseling Psychology: get involved with more broad based things o School Psychology  Training in Clinical Psychology o Undergraduate preparation  Education in psychology  Basic psychology courses  Clinically-relevant courses  Statistics and research methods o Graduate school  GPA  Graduate Record Exams  Research experience  Clinically-relevant experience o Continuing progression education Chapter 2 & 3 – Historical Overview & Current Issues in Clinical Psychology  Ancient Roots o Hippocrates  Melancholy  Phrenitis  Mania  Hysteria o Greek Philosophers o Yellow Emperor’s Book of Internal Medicine  Point of book is looking for homeostasis  Yin and yang – opposites create balance  Mental tests – all about sharpening our views o Medieval Europe  Malleus Malifacarum o Renaissance  De Praestigisiis Daemonum  Religious perspective came in  He must be “possessed” th th  18 and 19 Centuries: Laying the Groundwork o Understanding Mental Disorders  Psychiatry gains credibility as a brand of mental disorders’  Moral Treatment Movement  Philipe Pinel  William Tuke  Moral treatment comes to U.S  Dorthea Dix o Measurement of Individual Differences  Want to understand causes  Sir Francis Galton  Heredity Genius  Measured individual differences  James McKeen Cattel  First to use “mental test”  Ie; reaction time, crude measures  Developed standards for psychological testing –standardization o Is yours the same as mine? o Minimize error o Emergence of Scientific Psychiatry  Generalization: Ability to generalize so we don’t have to come up with something new every time  Discrimination: to differentiate different diseases  All about illuminating generalizability and discrimination  J. Langdon Down – Down’s Syndrome  Ewald Hecker – hebephrenia (form of schizophrenia that is highly identifiable within the adolescent population)  General paresis – syphilis  Emil Kraepelin (important) – first to start to build a common diagnostic categorization  Textbook on psychiatry  Dementia praecox – altzimers  With emergence came improved classification  Differentiation of mental retardation from mental illness  Acceptance of non-biological causes of mental disorders o Hysteria and Psychological Determinism  Sigmund Freud  looked at not only physical but also psychological  curious most about how person manifested  Jean Martin Charcot  Instant cures through hypnosis  Seeing there are ways to ‘release’ an individual  Piere Janet  Furthered hypnosis  Freud’s Impact on Clinical Psychology o Psychoanalytic treatment o
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