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Lecture 2

RE100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Pope Nicholas V, Papal Bull, Canary IslandsPremium

7 pages82 viewsFall 2014

Department
Religion & Culture
Course Code
RE100
Professor
Erich Fox Tree
Lecture
2

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RE100 Unit 2: Religion and Colonialism
Native American Science, Technology, and Religion
Maize/Corn
Began at least 9,000 years, not long after archaeologists believe
ancient peoples began domesticating grains in Mesopotamia
Archaeological evidence of grinding stones with domesticated maize
have been found in caves/rack-shelters in Rio Balsas valley of
Guerrero, Mexico, which have been dated to 8,700 KYA
Believed to come from a wild plant called teosinte (=”god grain”)
Teosinte has branching stalks capped by flowers and spikes. Seeds
are small and attached bilaterally to spikes
6 principal genetic changes:
1. One central stalk
2. Multiple fruits/seeds now found on stable cobs
3. The cob has more grains
4. Seeds are softer than before
5. Seeds stick to the corn cob
6. Cobs are covered by husks, while individual seed chaff has
reduced
All the while, young maize retains its soft, sweet stalk that may
have been why people originally consumed it
Every part of the corn plant is useful:
oFood: seeds; sugar from stalk; tea from tassels
oFood preparation: leaves and husks used for tamales
oAgriculture: maize plant is a trellis for beans, which in turn
wrap around maize stalks and help them resist wind. In
return, beans fixe nitrogen for maize.
oConstruction: stalks used for fences, shacks, and wattle-and-
daub buildings
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oEconomics: maize is a basic trade item
oReligion: maize is central to religion and identity in many
parts of the Americas where corn was a staple
Maize in science and technology:
oDomestication
oUse of every part
oImportance to culture
oIntercropping
oAdaptation to ecological zones
oNixtamalization (soaked grains) – processed in an alkali
(soaked in lime water, i.e. tortilla chips)
oPreservation
What is Colonialism?
According to Dr. Sheila Cote-Meek, Associate VP, Academic and
Indigenous Studies at Laurentian University, colonialism is a process that:
Concerns land and resources
Requires a specific ideology by the colonizer, who must imagine the
colonized to be less rational, less worthy, or even less human than
the colonizer.
Always involves violence, including physical, structural, and
symbolic violence
Is ongoing; colonialism is not just something of the past
What does colonialism affect?
Everything
2
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