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Lecture 6

Introduction to Judaism - Lecture 6

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Religion & Culture
Holly Pearse

 Today in Judaism o 22 Tishrei, 5774 AM & 23Tishrei  Shemini Atzeret (8th day of the assembly)  rain day  shimchat torah (rejoicing in the law)  the completion of the annual cycle of Torah readings  Hakafah o torah scroll gets love o controversial practice, Christian/pagans peg idol worship of the Torah  Reprise - The Sects o Sadducees  Ritual law  Observance  Elitist  Torah  No oral law  Unknown  Free will  One G-d only o Pharisees  Halakhah  Purity  Democratic  Tanakh  Oral law  Afterlife  1 messiah  Apocalypse  Free will  One G-d  may have believed in angels o Essenes  Purity  Ritual  Extra elitist  Torah  Some Tanakh  did not have the book of Esther  does not use name of god  female hero  many sectarian documents and the apocalypses  one God, many cosmic beings  angels and demons  after life  2 messiahs  apocalypse o Zealots  Anti-Rome  Warrior purity  One G-d  not a lot of their own documents, not much information about them  lot of popular support, but blamed for Roman war  believed in apocalypse - theirs was an active version  fighting would start the apocalypse (active/passive apocalypse)  religious, but also political`  Revolution! o under Greco-Roman Domination, there were four major attempts at revolution:  against the Seleucid Empire  Maccabean revolt (167-160BCE)  against the Romans  first Jewish war 66-73CE o against foreign oppression, this was God's city, God's home o Romans not beloved by Jews  seen as anti-God o siege of Jerusalem in 70CE  zealots withdrew, legend shows mass suicide so Romans could not capture or kill them  "drew lots" to see who would murder everyone then commit suicide  about 3000 deaths  Diasporic Jewish rebellions 115-117CE o Kitos War o happened because many Jews were kicked out of Jerusalem  hoped to weaken the Romans  taxes as a result, Romans wanted to keep Jews in check  Jews were bitter and started the war o only provoked the Romans  Bar Kosiba (Bar Kochba) Revolt 132-135CE o Akiva - used Numbers 24  "a star will rise of Jacob" o was considered a messiah movement, initiate messianic age o bitterness over loss of the temple, means that the end is nigh, that the big apocalypse is coming o Hadrian 130CE  talked about rebuilding the temple if Jews were good  decided to plow down Temple Mount and building temple to Jupiter instead  can be seen as a victory dance by the Romans o Romans started tightening policies against Jews  anti-circumcision laws  Hellenists viewed it as mutilation  former kingdom of Judah becomes Jew free  start of the Diaspora  exiled anyone they thought would be trouble, not even able to visit the temple mound  The Fall of the Temple o accounts of the fall (70CE)  Herod built a very strong temple, Romans had trouble tearing it down  many deaths, diseases were rampant  orange of the flames more terrifying than the river of blood - bystander  dogfight down to the end o theological implications  immediate ramifications  God forsake His people  economic and social hub of Jerusalem  nexus between Earth and Heaven  place where God touches earth, center of holy spoke  sacrifices could not happen, prosperity of Israel stopped  could only be one temple, altar could only stand where the temple stood  priesthood was official leadership o no leadership, vacuum  interpretations of the Fall of the Temple  no God  foreign gods were stronger than God  God had to allow it to happen
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