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Lecture 11

Introduction to Judaism - Lecture 11

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Department
Religion & Culture
Course
RE204
Professor
Holly Pearse
Semester
Fall

Description
RE204 – Lecture 11  Today in Judaism o 11 Cheshvan, 5774  anniversary of Jacob's wife Rachel's death (Gen 35. 16-20) giving birth to Benjamin  a day to honour matriarchs  day for women's spirituality and renewal  a day to contemplate life and human frailty and transformation  Jews in Medieval Christian Europe o Christian Rome  Holy Roman Empire 962-1802  Roman Empire began decline, much of Rome split up and retaken by original occupants  quasi conversion of Constantine  byzantine empire 300-1453 o Pre/Early Christian Empires o Christian monarchies and popes  Ashkenazi Jews  specifically out of Germany/France  Central Europe  Sephardic Jews  Spain/Mediterranean  Jewish culture in Spain under Islam o Christian bishops and popes have long standing influence o rulers/emperors have problems with Christian doctrines  Jews were allowed in cities because they were economically useful  SHUM settlements o SHUM settlements in Rhineland  Speyer (Shpria)= SH (ca. 1084)  Worms (Vermayza) = U (10thcentury)  Mainz (Magentza) = M (10th century) o Germany used to multiculturalism o settlements in Rhineland fastest expanding centre in the northern world o Yiddish - medieval German + Hebrew o root center of the Ashkenazi tradition  takkanot SHUM (SHUM synod), ca. 1196  cultural/custom form of Judaism because of comfortability  had to determine whether Christians were idolaters o some viewed them as yes, some as no o recategorized Christians as monotheists  idea of ethical monotheism  shared the texts, therefore could be considered to not be idolaters  ratified many of the decrees, many regarding divorce and marriage  banned levirate marriage  revolutionized dowry law 1 RE204 – Lecture 11  if one Jew snitched on another Jew to non-Jewish authority, they would be excommunicated  some reflected responsa of time and gave instructions on how to do business o Troyes, France- 1160 - hold council (synod) administrative council where they decide how things are administered  met to determine important rules for living in this part of the diaspora  only applicable in the areas where the rabbis preside, does not extend past their jurisdiction  have an expiration date  ban on polygamy - most notable one coming from this area  banned because it disgraces the name of God, Christians did not practice polygamy, if Jews have more than one wife, makes them look more perverse than Christians o recognition that Judaism must change and adapt or else it won't survive  holds the same authority as rabbis before Midrash was written  Early Christian-Jewish relations o points of similarity  share monotheism  share texts  share messianic theology, that there will be a messiah to initiate a kingdom of God o points of friction  circumcision, taken out of Christianity  Christians - happens through faith in Jesus o become the covent peoeple and Israelis  "elected" people of God  charge of deicide - Jews responsible for killing of Jesus o theological issues  polemics  polemics - charges or accusations of enemies written down  deicide - Jews and Romans responsible, but roman side downplayed  idea of devil more prominent in Christian mythology  replacement theology  replacement - judaism is represented by blindfolded subjugated roman o church is the triumphant, reflects understanding that Christians are the new people of God and that Jews have been replaced  supersessionism  triumphalism and absolutism  absolutism - both sides acknowledge their sides are the absolute truth  triumphalism - Christians triumphed 2 RE204 – Lecture 11  Violence in Christian Europe o Ghettos and Judenhut  really come into their own after Christianization of Europe  before 10th century, more considered Jewish quarters, not ghettos  Judenhut - special clothes/insignia of Jews, after 1215 more prominent  Jews and Christians too close, moved backwards to create the separation o pogroms and expulsi
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