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Lecture 6

SY101 WEEK 6.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SY101
Professor
Marcela Cristi
Semester
Fall

Description
SY101 October 16, week 6 10/15/2013 5:31:00 AM Labeling Theory: Rejecting Labels Techniques of neutralization ( Gresham Sykes and David Matza)  Denial of responsibility  Denial of Injury  Denial of a Victim  Condemnation of the Condemners  Appeal to high loyalties Types of Deviance ( Edwin Lemert ) Primary  Casual acts of deviance that have no part or little effect on self-concept Secondary  Gradually a deviant identity becomes part of self concept as people start to self label Tertiary  Normalization of behavior considered deviant by society and re-labeling it as non-deviant  Most of us resist being labeled deviant.  Others revel in a deviant identity. (Motorcycle Gang)  Social class and labels : The power of Labels  William Chambliss’ study: The Saints and the Roughnecks  Different Social Class backgrounds  Different treatment/perceptions by the police were the result of social class differences Functionalist Perspective  Its roots are traced back to Emile Durkheim  Law represents the consensus of the people  Deviance is normal and functional to society  Three Essential Functions  Clarifies moral values, boundaries, and norms  Promotes social unity  Encourages social change  Functionalism and Social Control  If a group attempts to upset the equilibrium, efforts are made to restore balance  Pluralistic theory of social control  Mediation and balance among competing groups Strain Theory : How Social values Produce Crime  Robert Merton  Crime is a natural part of society  Most people have a strong desire to achieve cultural goals such as wealth  But not everyone has access to society’s institutionalized means, or legitimate ways of achieving success  Deviance drive by a gap between societal/ cultural goals and the institutionalized means to achieve them  If access to achieving cultural goals is blocked, individuals can feel strain or frustration which may lead to deviance/ crime Illegitimate Opportunity Theory : Explaining Social Class and Crime  Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin  The Poor & Crime  The poor are socialized to want things economically out of reach through legitimate means  But sometimes illegitimate opportunity structures are available  For deviance to occur people must have access to illegitimate opportunity structures  Drug Dealing  Street Crime  Gambling  Hustling  In our society different social groups/ classes have unequal legitimate opportunities for success  The school system crashes the poor  Social class & crime  White collar crime and street crime  The Rich : White collar and corporate crime  Crimes that people of high social status commit  Privileged groups are not crime free  But they have different illegitimate opportunity structures available to them which result in different types of crime  Corporate crime involves millions of dollars and often hurt a large number of people at once  White Collar crimes go largely unnoticed  White collar criminals get by with a slap on the wrist  The poor and street crime  Street crime, by contrast, usually involves small sums of money and causes harm to a limited number of people  street crimes are given much more publicity, and are severely punished  Assaults and murders far less than the number of injuries diseases, and deaths caused by corporations  In Canada, death in the workplace ranks third after heart disease and cancer  Corporate crime has a more devastating impact/ cost than street crime  Only some white collar/ business crimes are dealt under the Criminal code  Most white collar crime is treated by special agencies run by the elite  No power to imprison  Politicians/ governments are unwilling to create policies/ regulations that might cause corporations to cut back , move out, or close down  Corporations have great political and economic power—they influence the laws that regulate them  Regulatory agencies are run/controlled by the elite—wealthy people—who sympathize with the corporate world and protect it  Street crime, is handled by the courts The Conflict Perspective: Class, Crime, and the CJS  Its roots are traced back to Karl Marx  The law reflects views of a powerful elite who can influence the state  The law as an instrument of oppressi
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